Journal of Plant Physiology & Pathology ISSN: 2329-955X

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Editorial, J Plant Physiol Pathol Vol: 9 Issue: 3

Molecular Genetics: Study Models and their Relevance in Hereditary Screening

Raksha Singh*

USDA-ARS, Crop Production and Pest Control Research Unit, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

*Corresponding Author:
Raksha Singh
USDA-ARS, Crop Production and Pest Control Research Unit, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
Tel: 9618302890
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: February 24, 2021; Accepted Date: March 24, 2021; Published Date: March 31, 2021

Copyright: © All articles published in Journal of Plant Physiology & Pathology are the property of SciTechnol, and is protected by copyright laws. “Copyright © 2021, SciTechnol, All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Molecular

Molecular biology of evolution and heredity is a scientific study that addresses how contrasts exist among the structures or expression of DNA molecules and provides molecular basis for variety among life forms. Investigative attempts for determination of the structure and functioning of an organisms genome based on the hereditary traits have been successfully demonstrated.Some of the allied topics of molecular biology of heredity include classical Mendelian legacy [1], cellular science, molecular biology, natural or organic chemistry, systems biology and biotechnology. Geneticists search for changes in a gene composition and positioning and the resultant transformations in the functional quality in order to connect a gene arrangement to a specific phenotype.

Molecular hereditary profiling represent a capable strategy for connecting transformations to hereditary conditions which also will help to seek effective and efficient treatment strategies and in finding non-recurrent and sustainable cures for different hereditary disorders and diseases including autoimmune diseases. The research progress in the field of molecular science and genetics and the volume of scholarly information that was generated is relevant for education purposes and the logical scientific interpretations are fundamental for development of biomedical and environmental applications.

The revelation on the function of DNA in exchanging the coded information and replication and transfer of hereditary code from one cell to another and from one generation to another, the central dogma were the most significant findings of molecular biology.The findings on the central doctrine wherein the DNA strand gets transcribed and translated and the investigations on the critical proteins that are involved in the process were the most important advancements made in molecular biology. The central doctrine states that DNA replicates itself, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and RNA is translated into proteins. The principle of central dogma is the premise of all hereditary and biological qualities and plays a key role in determination of the molecular genetics of an organism [2]. In conjunction with the central doctrine, the hereditary code is used in deciphering how RNA is translated into proteins. The replication of DNA and transcription from DNA to mRNA takes place within the mitochondria whereas translation from RNA to proteins takes place within the ribosome. The hereditary code is made of four base sets namely the adenine, cytosine, uracil, and guanine and the genetic properties of the organism is determined by the combination of these base sets in codon and codon sequencing.

The analytical and technological advancements aid in deciphering the genetic sequences within the organism which further help in understanding the hereditary qualities and the associated phenotype of the organism. In certain situations, irregular and significant changes are created by chemical mutagens or radiation effects or even by transposons and they can now be detected for identifying specific phenotype as well as in hereditary screening.

Occasionally, mutagenesis and the associated phenotype are difficult to ascertain in microscopic organisms or cell biomass. The cells may be potentially transformed employing a molecular technique for inducing anti-microbial resistance and a fluorescent marker so that the mutants with the required phenotype aredetected and isolated from the non-mutants.The mutants strains showing the specific phenotype are isolated and further complementation test may be conducted to determine an event or phenotype. The induction of the mutant qualities is characterized as either prevailing, latentor epistatic mutations.

Epigenetics is regarded as heritable phenotype change that is devoid of substantial modifications within the DNA sequence. Epigenetics are suggested as highlights that are "on beat of " or "in expansion to" the conventional hereditary premise for inheritance. Epigenetics, in general includes changes that influence the quality and phenotype expression, but the term can moreover be utilized to depict any non-heritable phenotypic trait. Such epigenetic impacts on cellular and physiological phenotypic characteristics may result from external environmental stimuli or natural variables, or can be a part of usual genetic phenomenon [3]. Some genetic changes are heritableto the offspring among organisms.


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