Plant disease resistance
Plant disease resistance protects plants from pathogens in two ways: by pre-formed mechanisms and by infection-induced responses of the immune system. Relative to a disease-susceptible plant, disease resistance is often defined as reduction of pathogen growth on or in the plant, while the term disease tolerance describes plants that exhibit less disease damage despite similar levels of pathogen growth. Disease outcome is determined by the three-way interaction of the pathogen, the plant, and the environmental conditions (an interaction known as the disease triangle). Plant disease resistance is crucial to the reliable production of food, and it provides significant reductions in agricultural use of land, water, fuel and other inputs. Disease control is achieved by use of plants that have been bred for good resistance to many diseases, and by plant cultivation approaches such as crop rotation, use of pathogen-free seed, planting time and density, control of field moisture, and pesticide use. Resistance is the ability of a plant variety to restrict the growth and development of a specified pathogen or the damage they cause when compared to susceptible plant varieties under similar environmental conditions and pathogen pressure. Resistant varieties may exhibit some disease symptoms or damage under heavy pathogen pressure. Disease resistance is a major goal in breeding new varieties and plays a key role in vegetable crop production and integrated pest management practices. It is also carefully described to differentiate new varieties from older ones on the market. Resistance genes may be effective against all or some biotypes, pathotypes, races or strains of a pest, and the emergence of new biotypes, pathotypes.