Journal of Electrical Engineering and Electronic TechnologyISSN: 2325-9833

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Bose-Einstein condensation

Lawrence H Bennett

George Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science, USA

: J Electr Eng Electron Technol


The occupation of a single quantum state by a large fraction of bosons at low temperatures was predicted by Bose and Einstein ninety years ago. The theory of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of atoms is now well accepted, following on ingenious experiments, on dilute ultra cold gases of atoms with many laboratories showing new effects. In direct contrast, the occurrence of BEC in quasiparticles (magnons, excitons, polaritons, etc) has raised many heated discussions and very different opinions have been expressed about its nature. Snoke has presented criteria for excitons he believes are needed to qualify as a BEC. With magnons, Bunkov and Volovik do not accept the claim of the observation of BEC of magnons, whether in antiferromagnetic insulators (ladder compounds) or in pumping experiments or confined in nanoparticles. Mills has explicitly objected to the appearance of BEC in ladder compounds. It took many years for physicists to accept London’s argument that super fluidity is a BEC phenomenon. P. Anderson noted that “Fritz London’s single-minded thinking led him to surpass even Einstein, as he believed correctly that quantum mechanics was right at all scales including the macroscopic.”


[email protected]


Track Your Manuscript