Journal of Marine Biology & OceanographyISSN: 2324-8661

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Hydro-physico-chemistry of the Cross River Estuary, south-east Nigeria

Chimezie Ndunagum Emeka and Victoria Inyang Antia

University of Calabar, Nigeria

: J Mar Biol Oceanogr


The hydro-physico-chemical properties of the lower reaches of the Cross River Estuary were studied for documentation purposes. A total of 50 geo-referenced bottom water samples were obtained using a Nansen Bottom Water Sampler respectively. Depth measurements were simultaneously taken at each sampling station using an echo-sounder while turbidity was measured using a secchi-disc. Temperature, salinity and pH were analysed for each sample using a HANNA hand held combo meter. Within the channel, bottom water temperature ranged between 23°C and 30°C, turbidity ranged between 30 and 100 cm, pH ranged between 5 and 9 while bottom water salinity ranged between 0.15% and 0.20%. Based on salinity the channel was divided into 3 physico-chemical facies: the upper facies characterized by temperatures ranging from 25 to 26°C is the least turbid segment of the channel, alkaline and fairly saline; the middle facies characterized by temperatures ranging from 24 to 29°C is most turbid, neutral and the least saline part of the channel; and the lower FACIE with temperatures ranging from 25 to 29°C is the most acidic and saline part of the channel. The estuary appeared to have been greatly diluted.


Chimezie Ndunagum Emeka is an assistant lecturer in the Department of Geology, University of Calabar. He holds a BSc and an MSc degree in Marine Geology, and is currently studying for a PhD in Sedimentology at the University of Calabar, Nigeria. He is very proficient in the use of geo-scientific softwares. He has published some articles in reputed Journals and has also mentored several undergraduate students in his field of specialty. His research areas of interest include: Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Micropaleontology and Marine Geology.

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