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Remote Sensing and Space Systems | SciTechnol | Journal of Elect

Journal of Electrical Engineering and Electronic Technology.ISSN: 2325-9833

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Flight Mechanics

Flight mechanics are relevant to fixed wing (gliders, aeroplanes) and rotary wing (helicopters) aircraft. An Aeroplane (Airplane in US usage), is defined in ICAO Document 9110 as: a power-driven heavier than air aircraft, deriving its lift chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surface which remain fixed under given conditions of flight. In flight an aircraft can be considered as being acted on by four forces: lift, weight, thrust, and drag. Thrust is the force generated by the engine (whether it be a jet or a propeller driven craft) and acts along the engine's thrust vector for the purpose of overcoming drag. Lift acts perpendicular to the vector representing the aircraft's velocity relative to the atmosphere. Drag acts parallel to the aircraft's velocity vector, but in the opposite direction because drag resists motion through the air. Weight acts through the aircraft's centre of gravity, towards the center of the Earth. In straight and level flight,(or movement in the air) lift is approximately equal and opposite to weight. In addition, if the aircraft is not accelerating, thrust is equal and opposite to drag. In straight climbing flight, lift is less than weight. At first, this seems incorrect because if an aircraft is climbing it seems lift must exceed weight. When an aircraft is climbing at constant speed it is its thrust that enables it to climb and gain extra potential energy. Lift acts perpendicular to the vector representing the velocity of the aircraft relative to the atmosphere, so lift is unable to alter the aircraft's potential energy or kinetic energy. This can be seen by considering an aerobatic aircraft in straight vertical flight - one that is climbing straight upwards (or descending straight downwards). Vertical flight requires no lift! When flying straight upwards the aircraft can reach zero airspeed before falling earthwards - the wing is generating no lift and so does not stall. In straight, climbing flight at constant airspeed, thrust exceeds drag. In straight descending flight, lift is less than weight. In addition, if the aircraft is not accelerating, thrust is less than drag. In turning flight, lift exceeds weight and produces a load factor greater than one, determined by the aircraft's angle of bank. Journal of Electrical Engineering and Electronic Technology is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal in the field of electrical engineering and electronics that aims to publish the most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of research articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all areas of electrical engineering and electronics and making them accessible online freely without any restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers worldwide.

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