Probability and Statistical Method
The theory and methods of Statistics play an important role in society, medicine and industry. They enable understanding to be gained and informed decisions to be made, about a population by examining only a sample of the members of that population. For example, to decide whether a new drug improves the symptoms of attention deficit disorder in all those diagnosed as having the condition (the population), a clinical trial might be undertaken in which a sample of people who receive the new drug is compared with a sample receiving no active treatment. Such statistical inferences about a population are subject to uncertainty -what we observe in our particular sample (or samples) may not hold for the whole population. Probability theory and statistical distributions are needed to quantify this uncertainty, and assess the accuracy of our information about the population. This module aims to lay foundations in probability and distribution theory, data analysis and the use of statistical software, which will be built upon in later modules. It begins by defining probability via axioms and develops some of its useful properties. Random variables are introduced, and the properties of probability used to develop distributions of practical importance. Statistical analysis is introduced with simple ideas of summarising data (implemented in R). Basic ideas of statistical inference (including techniques of estimation, confidence intervals and hypothesis testing) are also covered and applied to data sets. Journal of Electrical Engineering and Electronic Technology is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal in the field of electrical engineering and electronics that aims to publish the most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of research articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all areas of electrical engineering and electronics and making them accessible online freely without any restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers worldwide.