About Animal Breeding
Animal breeding is a branch of animal science that deals with the study of evaluation of the genetic value (of livestock. Animal breeding includes domestication through controlled mating and reproduction of captive animals which were selected and mated based on their behavior and temperament. It deals with the application of the principles of genetics to improve the efficiency of production in animals. A group of animals related by descent and similar in most characters like general appearance, features, size, configuration, etc. are said to belong to a ‘breed’. The major objectives of animal breeding include improved growth rate, increased production of milk, meat, egg, wool, etc., superior quality of milk, meat, eggs, wool, etc., improved resistance to various diseases, increased productive life, and increased or, at least, acceptable reproduction rate. Animal breeding involves controlled propagation of animals especially the domesticated animals in order to improve desirable qualities in the off springs. Humans have modified domesticated animals production to suit human needs for centuries. Selective breeding uses knowledge from several branches of science which includes genetics, statistics, reproductive physiology, computer science, and molecular genetics. The various breeding systems include random mating, phenotypic assertive mating, phenotypic distortive mating, genetic assertive mating and Genetic distortive mating. There are several breeding techniques which are used to improvise the production in domestic animals which include inbreeding, outbreeding and mutations. The main aims of the breeders of animals lies in identifying and selecting desirable qualities in animals for future mating and discard less desirable qualities.