The simplest anthropometric measurements included the ratio of the breadth to the length of the skull (the “cephalic index”), that of the width to the length of the nose, the proportion of the upper arm to the lower arm, and so on. These measurements could be made with such familiar pieces of equipment as meter sticks, calipers, and measuring tapes. By selecting reliable measuring points, or “landmarks,” on the body, and standardizing the measuring techniques used, measurements could be made with great accuracy. The masses of data acquired from such investigations were used by physical anthropologists in the 19th and early 20th centuries to try to characterize various racial, ethnic, and national groups in terms of those bodily features peculiar to or typical of them.
In the 20th century, the application of anthropometry to the study of racial types was replaced by more sophisticated techniques for evaluating racial differences. Anthropometry continued to be a valuable technique, however, gaining an important role in paleoanthropology, the study of human origins and evolution through fossil remains. Craniometry, the measurement of the skull and facial structure, also a development of the 19th century, assumed new importance with the discoveries in the 1970s and ’80s of human and prehuman fossils greatly predating any such previous finds. Craniometric studies of prehistoric skull and face bones have enabled anthropologists to trace the gradual changes that occurred in the size and shape of the human head as it enlarged to accommodate increased brain volume; as a result, craniometry and other anthropometric techniques led to a major re-evaluation of prevailing theories that the adoption of an erect posture and the enlargement of the brain occurred simultaneously in human development.
In addition to its scholarly functions, anthropometry also has commercial applications. Anthropometric data have been used by industrial researchers in the design of clothing, especially military uniforms, and in the engineering of, for example, automobile seats, airplane cockpits, and space capsules.