Influenza virus is a globally important respiratory pathogen which is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality annually. The rapid evolution of influenza A and B viruses contributes to the annual seasonal epidemics (localized outbreaks) in humans as well as occasional pandemic (worldwide) outbreaks. Despite improvements in development of antiviral therapies during the last decade, vaccination remains the most effective method of prophylaxis. For those at risk of developing complications from influenza infection, annual vaccination is recommended as it induces a good degree of protection and is generally well tolerated by the recipient. Currently there are two types of influenza vaccines in use, the live-attenuated vaccine (LAV) given intranasally/orally, and the inactivated vaccine (IV) delivered subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The available trivalent IV (TIV) elicits good serum antibody responses but induces poor mucosal IgA antibody and cell-mediated immunity.