Journal of Nephrology & Renal Diseases#

About Kidney Diseases

When kidney function declines, the ability of the kidneys to filter blood efficiently is reduced. Some kidney function loss is normal with age, and people can even function normally with only one kidney. However, when kidney function drops as a result of kidney disease, serious health problems may develop. The two most common causes of kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure. Individuals with a family history of any kind of kidney problem are also at risk for kidney disease. Below mentioned are few kidney disorders:

Acute Kidney Failure: Acute kidney Failure is also called Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) or Acute Renal Failure. AKI is a syndrome that results in a sudden decrease in kidney function or kidney damage within a few hours or few days. This may lead to acute tubular necrosis, uric acid nephropathy, acute renal failure complications, etc.

Chronic Kidney Disease: Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The main job of the kidneys is to remove wastes and excess water from the body. The final stage of CKD is called end-stage renal disease. At this stage, the kidneys are no longer able to remove enough wastes and excess fluids from the body.

Drug and Nephrotoxin-Associated Kidney Disorders: Drugs are a common source of acute kidney injury. Drugs shown to cause nephrotoxicity exert their toxic effects by one or more common pathogenic mechanisms. Nephrotoxicity is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxic chemicals and medication, on the kidneys.

Glomerular Diseases: Many diseases affect kidney function by attacking the glomeruli, the tiny units within the kidney where blood is cleaned. Glomerular diseases include many conditions with a variety of genetic and environmental causes, but they fall into two major categories: Glomerulonephritis, Glomerulosclerosis.

Cystic Diseases of Kidney: Cystic kidney disease refers to a wide range of hereditary, developmental, and acquired conditions. Renal cystic disease is not a single condition, but instead multiple diseases and conditions which all deal with cysts that develop on or around the kidneys. In rare cases, these cysts can be cancerous, however, for most the cysts are benign.

Tubulointerstitial Diseases of Kidney: Tubulointerstitial diseases are clinically heterogeneous disorders that share similar features of tubular and interstitial injury. In severe and prolonged cases, the entire kidney may become involved, with glomerular dysfunction and even renal failure. This disease can be either acute, meaning it occurs suddenly, or chronic, meaning it is ongoing and eventually ends in kidney failure.

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