Journal of Fashion Technology & Textile EngineeringISSN: 2329-9568

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Textile dyeing

Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics through a dye (colour). Dyeing can be done at any stage of the manufacturing of textile- fiber, yarn, fabric or a finished textile product including garments and apparels. Dyeing is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material. Dyes are used for coloring the fabrics. Dyes are molecules which absorb and reflect light at specific wavelengths to give human eyes the sense of color. Dyes as colored unsaturated organic molecules must have affinity for fibers to be effectively applied. The dyes on fibers are physically bound to the fiber by one or more physical forces including hydrogen bonding, vander Waal s, or ionic forces and in certain cases chemically bound by covalent bonds. There are two major types of dyes namely, natural and synthetic dyes. Dyes that are obtained from natural sources like flowers, nuts, berries and other forms of vegetables and plants as well as from animal and mineral sources are known as natural dyes. Dyes based on a particular type of chemical composition are known as synthetic dyes. Synthetic dyes are made in a laboratory. Chemicals are synthesized for making synthetic dyes. Dyeing can be done during any stage in the textile manufacturing process. Textiles may be dyed as fibre, as yarn, as fabric, as garments, depending upon the type of the fabric or garment being produced. These methods include direct dyeing; Stock dyeing; top dyeing; Yarn dyeing; Piece dyeing; Solution pigmenting or dope dyeing; Garment dyeing etc. The dyeing process takes place in three phases: Attachment of the dye molecule to the surface of the fiber, Penetration into the intermolecular spaces as well as diffusion through the fiber and Orientation (and fixation) along the long chain molecules.