Viral infections remain a major public health threat worldwide. Significant progress achieved in the antiviral field during the last decades has improved or saved the lives of millions of patients, most notably those infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses and herpes simplex viruses. Anti-flu molecules are the only solution for infected patients at the beginning of a severe flu pandemic. Many viral infections are prevented or controlled through vaccination and other public health measures, making one-time scourges such as measles, poliomyelitis, rabies, and yellow fever now rare in the developed world. Numerous effective antiviral drugs are also in widespread use.