Bone and Mineral disorders occurs when kidneys fail to maintain proper levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. They can be associated with endocrine disorders, chronic kidney disease, nutritional deficiencies or metabolic disorders. When kidneys fail to maintain the proper levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood, it leads to abnormal bone hormone levels. This is a common problem in people with kidney disease and affects almost all patients receiving dialysis. This is most serious in children because their bones are still growing. The condition slows bone growth and causes deformities. One such deformity occurs when the legs bend inward toward each other or outward away from each other; this deformity is referred to as “renal rickets.” Another serious complication is short stature. Symptoms can be seen in growing children with renal disease even before they start dialysis. In healthy adults, bone tissue is continually being remodeled and rebuilt. The kidneys play an important role in maintaining healthy bone mass and structure because one of their jobs is to balance calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood and ensure the vitamin D a person receives from sunlight and food becomes activated.