Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis ISSN: 2325-9590

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Adaptation of Livestock to Environmental Challenges

Adaptation of Livestock to Environmental Challenges

Livestock undergoes various environmental challenges. Thermal stress is the most intriguing factor affecting livestock production in the ever changing climatic scenario. Adaptation is defined as the morphological, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the animal which promote welfare and favor survival in specific environment. Environmental challenges negatively affect the growth, production and reproduction of livestock. Combined effect of temperature and humidity proved to be extremely fatal to the entire livestock population. Animal cope up with environmental challenges with various kinds of responses. These include physiological response, blood biochemical response, neuroendocrine response, molecular and cellular response, metabolic response and behavioral response. Physiological responses include alterations in body temperature, respiration rate, heart rate and skin temperature. Blood biochemical and endocrine responses are by which the animals try to cope up to adverse environmental conditions by altering the concentration of blood metabolites, stress and metabolic hormones under the control of nervous system. Cellular and molecular responses are the cardinal mechanisms by which the animal survives stress.

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