Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis ISSN: 2325-9590

Review Article, J Vet Sci Med Diagn Vol: 4 Issue: 3

Adaptation of Livestock to Environmental Challenges

Abdul Niyas PA1,2, Chaidanya K1,2, Shaji S1,2, Sejian V1*, Bhatta R1, Bagath M1, Rao GSLHVP3, Kurien EK2 and Girish V3
1ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi, Bangalore-560030, Karnataka, India
2Academy of Climate Change Education and Research, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, Kerala, India
3Centre for Animal Adaptation to Environment and Climate Change Studies, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Mannuthy, Thrissur, Kerala, India
Corresponding author : Dr. Sejian V, Senior Scientist
Animal Physiology Division, ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi, Bangalore-560030, India,
Tel: +91-9740726121; Fax: +91-080-25711420
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: January 30, 2015 Accepted: March 13, 2015 Published: March 18, 2015
Citation: Niyas PAA, Chaidanya K, Shaji S, Sejian V, Bhatta R, et al. (2015) Adaptation of Livestock to Environmental Challenges. J Vet Sci Med Diagn 4:3. doi:10.4172/2325-9590.1000162

Abstract

Adaptation of Livestock to Environmental Challenges

Livestock undergoes various environmental challenges. Thermal stress is the most intriguing factor affecting livestock production in the ever changing climatic scenario. Adaptation is defined as the morphological, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the animal which promote welfare and favor survival in specific environment. Environmental challenges negatively affect the growth, production and reproduction of livestock. Combined effect of temperature and humidity proved to be extremely fatal to the entire livestock population. Animal cope up with environmental challenges with various kinds of responses. These include physiological response, blood biochemical response, neuroendocrine response, molecular and cellular response, metabolic response and behavioral response. Physiological responses include alterations in body temperature, respiration rate, heart rate and skin temperature. Blood biochemical and endocrine responses are by which the animals try to cope up to adverse environmental conditions by altering the concentration of blood metabolites, stress and metabolic hormones under the control of nervous system. Cellular and molecular responses are the cardinal mechanisms by which the animal survives stress.

Keywords: Adaptation; Respiration; Sweating; Behavior; Cortisol; Thyroid hormones; Heat shock protein

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