Aflatoxins, Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Special Focus on Turkey's Current Status
Aflatoxins, Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Special Focus on Turkey’s Current Status
Mycotoxins are food contaminants produced as secondary metabolites by different kinds of fungi. The major groups of mycotoxins are aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxins, patulin and fusarium toxins. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group I) by The International Agency for Research on Cancer. The principle target organ of AFB1 is liver. AFB1 causes hotspot mutation of p53 gene at third base of codon 249, and takes the form of G…>T transversions. Besides, both hepatits B virus (HBV) and hepatits C virus (HCV) infections were suggested to be responsible HCC. HCC is the most frequent primary liver cancer and the most severe complication of chronic liver disease. The annual number of new cases worldwide represents more than 5% of human cancers and is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One or more causative agents can be identified in most HCC cases. AFB1 exposure with viral hepatitis is suggested to lead to HCC. This review will focus on AFB1, viral hepatitis, their synergistic and additive effects and the measures that should be taken to prevent HCC stemming from AFB1 exposure with viral hepatitis.