Can Toluidine Blue and Lectins become New Histochemical Markers for Early Recurrent Pregnancy Miscarriage?
Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate morphological changes, lectin specificity features and toluidine blue staining specifics of the structural components of human embryos chorionic villi (CV), died out as a result of the first trimester miscarriage.
Methods: Histological material included 27 4-13-week human embryos CV tissue samples, obtained after sporadic miscarriage (SM), recurrent miscarriage (RM) and 23 control group CV samples. They were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue. Lectin peroxidase technique was applied, using 4 lectins (SBA, HPA, CNFA (CNL), STA).
Results: Destructive changes, edema and a probable decrease of synthetic activity were observed in RM chorionic villi samples. With the help of lectin peroxidase technique, we have identified two most active lectins – CNFA (CNL) and STA.
Conclusion: One of the mechanisms of a regular early pregnancy loss can be a reduced expression of LacdiNAc and its component – GlucNAc and, as a result, unmasking an embryo against negative external factors, including such of immune nature. The other probable mechanism can be a reduced synthetic activity of RM chorionic villi, which can result in a decreased invasion activity and growth.