Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical DiagnosisISSN: 2325-9590

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Climate Change and Livestock Nutrient Availability: Impact and Mitigation

 Climate Change and Livestock Nutrient Availability: Impact and Mitigation

Livestock is an integral part of any agricultural system all over the world. Optimized livestock production is depended upon many factors like environmental stresses, climatic factors, health status, nutrient availability, and genetic potential. In the changing climate scenario, nutritional stress act as the most important indirect stress affecting livestock leading to decreased performance, lower efficiency, increased mortality and it also affects the immune system. The animals in tropics faces the problem of low feed availability during summer and this leads to severe nutritional stress to livestock grazing in the low pasture lands. Under nutrition reduces the quality and quantity of milk production, effects growth potential and reduces body condition score (BCS), induces seasonal weight loss (SWL) and it also declines the reproductive capacity of the animals, it reduces the fertility rate, embryo quality, expression of oestrus behaviour, altering follicular development, compromising oocyte competence, and inhibiting embryonic development, reduced calf birth weight, reduced sperm output, decreased sperm motility and an increased proportion of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa in the ejaculate. The reduced nutrient availability also alters the endocrine and hormonal activity in livestock leading to physiological changes and decline in reproductive efficiency. The animals exposed to environmental stress are found to cope up with the adverse effects of the stress when the nutritional requirements are not compromised. Thus in order to sustain the productivity, suitable nutritional interventions are to be adopted like management of forage for the dry period, utilization of the non-conventional feed resources as alternatives, antioxidant supplementations during the stress period, and also water management strategies for both surface and ground water resources, at both local and national levels, as fresh and contamination free water is crucial for animal production. These efforts will ensure economically viable returns in livestock farms in the changing climate scenario..

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