Cogan's Syndrome: A Retrospective Study of 22 Years
Introduction: Cogan’s syndrome (CS) is a rare clinical entity, of presumptive autoimmune etiology, typically characterized by a non-syphilitic interstitial keratitis (IK) associated with a Menière-like vestibuloauditory dysfunction.
Objective: Since only few cases have been published to current date and considering the variable presentation, clinical course and absence of specific diagnostic tests, we aim to potentially bring further insight for diagnosis and management.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all cases of CS followed at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Voice and Communication Disorders in Santa Maria Hospital, Lisbon, from 1992 to 2013. Patient’s demographics, otolaryngologic, ophthalmologic and systemic manifestations, presenting symptoms, audiovestibular and laboratory testing, imaging assessment, performed treatment, disease course and hearing outcomes were analyzed.
Results: We review a group of six patients, two with typical and four with atypical CS. Five patients evolved to profound hearing loss, bilateral in two cases. No patient had permanent visual deficit. The Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) increase was the most consistent laboratory finding. Only one patient had positive anti- Heat Shock Protein (HSP) 70 antibodies. All patients were treated with corticosteroids. Methotrexate was associated in three, with some hearing loss stabilization. Three patients underwent cochlear implantation.
Discussion and Conclusions: In our series, morbidity was mainly related to the vestibuloauditory dysfunction. In implanted patients, there was a significant improvement of hearing function. We highlight the need of a multidisciplinary approach to this pathology for better therapeutic outcomes and quality of life.