Archives of Clinical Pathology

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Covid-19 Disease is the Current Challenging Global Public Health

Early diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is the key for quick management of COVID-19 cases and control of the spread of the coronavirus based on the appropriate sample collection. Nowadays, the rapid, accurate and promising molecular laboratory diagnosis assay (such as RT-PCR, microarray, LAMP, point-of care, CRISPR) for detections of SARS-CoV-2 RNA of pathogenic coronaviruses would be valuable to controlling the sources of infection, prevent subsequent secondary spread, saving people’s lives and help patients to prevent the illness evolution. The novel, pandemic Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) is the current challenging global public health concern infectious human disease, caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus. Initially, this coronavirus outbreak form Wuhan city, China, in December 2019 and speedily spread to other regions of china and other countries around the world. On March, 2020 the WHO upgraded the status of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) outbreak from epidemic to a global pandemic. The causative agent of COVID-19 disease, Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is contagious and can transmit from an infected person having a respiratory tract symptoms (such as high fever and headache, cough, muscle pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, weakness) to a non-infected person during the incubation period of 2 days to 14 days via coughing, exhaling, sneezing with small droplets from nose or mouth and then settle on air in the environment or in inanimate surfaces like metal, glass or plastic for up to 9 days and further infecting humans who breathe or touch these places and then touch their body parts such as mouth, nose, eye. However, some infected patients show few to no signs of illness during the early phase of infection but can still transmit the virus to non-infected persons. Since December 2019 up to 13 June 2020, many people were infected with COVID-19 cases, and many people were died worldwide at the time of writing this review, which implies that the virus has a great ability to spread, adapt and survive in different environmental conditions. Some finding suggests that aged people and humans with pre-existing health problems including cancer, HIV/AIDS, diabetes, heart disease, lung disease are more vulnerable to acquire the COVID-19 and develop serious illness more often than others.

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