Determination of the monolayer coverage of silica particles
Extreme weather conditions present significant challenges in several industrial sectors, such as automotive, wind energy, industrial cryogenics and aerospace. Passive solutions are important for achieving long term-functional performance. However, an effective, durable passive anti-icing or deicing surface has been yet to be demonstrated, indicating significant necessity for developments. Introducing enhanced chemical repellency and structured roughnesses into surfaces are two of the best candidates to achieve this main goal. Realizing these characteristics via the introduction of suitably functionalized silica nanoparticles represents an emerging approach that allows the modification of existing coatings and composite materials. Selective and specific functionalization of these silica particles is crucial in order to achieve a monolayer coverage avoiding partially covered particles or a surfeit of unreacted silane which may have undesirable impacts on the materials processing or ultimate properties. The primary aim of this study was to establish methods to determine the degree of functionalization and to identify the monolayer coverage of tailored silica particles. A model family of silica particles with diameter of approximately 35 nm was produced using a refined stober method.