About the Journal
Research and Reports on Metals is an Open Access, peer reviewed material science Journal dedicated to publish high quality articles covering wide range study areas of Metallurgy Research.
Research and Reports on Metals aims to provide the international platform for all the engineers, academicians and scientists to disseminate advancing knowledge on the start-of-art Metallurgical Engineering.
The Journal focuses on publishing latest research reports on the fundamentals and applied studies of all kinds of Metals and materials- their structure, properties, synthesis, processing, fabrication, design, performance and applications. Manuscripts elucidating science and technology innovations, industrial applications and sustainable practices are welcomed.
All the articles submitted to the Journal- Research and Reports on Metals will undergo double blind peer review process through the Editorial Manager System. The Editorial Manager System helps in maintaining the quality of the peer review process and provides easy access to the authors to track the status of the manuscript, including evaluation and publication in an automated way.
Materials science :
Materials science covers a part of engineering which involves discovering and designing new materials and analyzing their properties and structure. It includes the study of the characteristics and uses of different materials like metals, ceramics, and plastics that are employed in science and technology. Different materials have different strengths and weaknesses and are better for different purposes. Part of materials science involves classifying materials putting them into groups. Materials are generally split into four main groups like metals, polymers, ceramics, and composites.
Minerals & Ores:
Mineral is a manifestly happening chemical compound which is usually in crystalline and inorganic form. A mineral has one unique chemical composition but a rock can be a combination of different minerals. The study of minerals is referred as mineralogy.
An ore is a special type of rock that contains a large amount of a particular mineral (usually a metal) to make it economically practical to extract that mineral from the surrounding rock. Ores can be mined in a number of ways, including strip mining. Ores are classified based on how they form like magmatic or volcanic ores, Carbonate alkaline ores, metamorphic ores, Sedimentary ore.
A substance with high electric conductivity, shiny surface, luster, and malleability, which comfortably loses electrons to form positive ions is known as metals. Metals are described according to their position on the Periodic table, together with groupings as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, and uncommon earth metals. Atoms of metals quite simply lose their outer shell electrons, resulting in a free flowing cloud of electrons inside their solid arrangement. This provides the potential of metal materials to easily transmit heat and electricity.
The science that offers with tactics utilized in extracting metals from their ores, purifying and alloying metals and growing useful objects from metals is called metallurgy. The basic metallurgical processes used for the extraction of metals from their ores are Grinding, Concentration, Floatation Tank, Rotation, Smelting and Refining. Metallurgy is subdivided by characteristics into ferrous metallurgy also known as black metallurgy and non-ferrous metallurgy also known as coloured metallurgy. The manufacturing of ferrous metals accounts for more than ninety% of metal manufacturing globally.
Extractive metallurgy is the practice of elimination of precious metals from an ore and refining the extracted raw metals into a purer form. In order to convert a metallic oxide or sulphide to a purer metal, the ore must be decreased physically, chemically, or electrolytically. Extractive metallurgists are interested in 3 primary streams: feed, listen precious metallic and waste.
Alloy is a material made from at least two different or more than two chemical elements, one in all must be a metal. The vital metallic component of an alloy is known as the main metal. The other components of an alloy which are known as alloying agents can be either metals or non-metals and they're present in smaller quantities sometimes less than 1 % of the total amount. An alloy can sometimes be a compound structure which is chemically bonded together.
Metallic properties are defined as a substance with the characteristics of luster, good thermal conductor and electrical conductor and the capability of being permanently shaped or deformed at normal room temperature. Chemical elements not containing the properties are known as nonmetals. A few elements, known as metalloids which sometimes behave like a metal and at sometimes like a nonmetal. Some examples of metalloids are as follows: carbon, phosphorus, tellurium, arsenic, antimony etc.
The process of construction of machines and structures from raw materials is known as metal fabrication. Some of the raw materials useful for metal fabrications are plate metal, pre-formed and expanded metal, welding wire, fittings and castings. At the beginning these raw materials need to be cut to the correct size. Tube bending machines and rolling machines are useful in bending and making round portion of metal. Parts are welded and joined together, and then after cooling the machine or structure is usually painted. This final product is inspected before it is shipped off to the client.
In industry, metal is melted into furnace and cooled to form the solid and the solid metal is mechanically shaped as per design to form a particular object or a structure. The term covers a wide range of work which may be from large ships and bridges to precise engine parts or delicate jewelry.
Toxic Metals and Heavy Metals :
Toxic metals, including "heavy metals," are individual metals and metallic compounds which is responsible for negative effect on civilization. Few semi-metallic, toxic elements, including selenium and arsenic may be fatal on high quantity but also in very small amounts, many of these metals are necessary to provide life support. They may build up in biological systems and become a significant health hazard.
General Applications of Metals:
Metals have been used widely by man since ancient time. In past, these metals were used for cooking, farming tools, weapons like bow, arrows, swords and also in locomotive wagons, but with development in technology, the use of metals has widened distinctly. Currently, almost any object we see is made of metals. So the use of metals in our daily life has become unavoidable. Modern man has also learned how to use the combination of metals and there alloys for his benefit.
Medical Applications of Metals:
Implantable materials make contributions to modern system of medicine. Many of the treatments are now taken for granted (joint replacement, pacemakers, heart valves, stents) would not have been possible without the advanced metals, polymers, and ceramics. The metals used for medical devices and instruments can also be considered as an example of metal’s medical application.