Eco-Tourism: An Option For Sustainable Livelihood In Uttarakhand To Reduce Out Migration
United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, 1988) has defined sustainable tourism as ‘’leading to management of all resources in such a way that economics, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support system’’.
Eco-tourism to this paper focused on a sustainable eco-tourism, an integrated with spiritual, rural, adventure and community based tourism and generate employments opportunity at local communities and alleviates poverty in remote areas in Uttarakhand. Uttarakhand is known all over India and also world as a place of magnificent natural beauty along with pilgrim destination of Hindus and other religion. Beneath the scenic state of Uttarakhand, which is known for its great Himalayan mountain range, rivers and tourist spots, lies a painful reality of poverty and unemployment and resulting discrimination and out migration.
Tourism is one of the biggest and fastest-growing economic sectors in the global economy and also world’s largest growing industry and has significant environmental, cultural, social, and economic effects, both positive and negative. The main objectives of our study are formation of tourist circuits, promotion of eco-tourism, village tourism and find out the problems and suggest a suitable plan for sustainable tourism development in Uttarakhand. And promote and initiate such a local custom and traditional foods, dishes, culture, folklore, handicrafts, architecture heritage and etc which have high value at local communities but yet to set proper recommendation. Sustainable tourism can be taken in four different interpretations that include socio-economic sustainability of tourism, the ecologically sustainable tourism, sustainable tourism development with both focus of environment as well as long term practicability of the industry and finally tourism as a part of a strategy for sustainable development. Therefore, the purpose of this research or study is to adopt integrated approach and establishment of new plans for the sustainable development of tourism in Uttarakhand. Uttarakhand has one high scope of tourism destination in the field of pilgrimage, nature tourist, adventure tourism, honeymoon destination, cultural tourism & after all community based tourism. The state share and contribute almost half (49.6%) of the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) and as income from tourism. Though the state has the immense potential of various type of tourism, but the state is famous of spiritual/religion tourism and in some extent adventures tourism. But the community based tourism yet to explore.