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Interactions between mouth breathing, temporomandibular disorders and obstructive sleep apnea

Journal of Pulmonary Medicine.

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Interactions between mouth breathing, temporomandibular disorders & obstructive sleep apnea

Normal    respiration    is    mainly    nasal    breathing.    Mouth    breathing    can    arise,    however,    in    the    setting    of    nasal    obstruction,    for    example,    from    hypertrophy    of    the    turbinates,    deviated    septum,    seasonal    allergies,    chronic    rhinitis,    or    enlarged    tonsils    and    adenoids.    Mouth    breathing    leads    to    altered    muscle    recruitment    in    the    nasal    and    oral    cavities.    This    can    impact    craniofacial    growth    which    lead    to    anterior    open    bite    and    posterior    crossbite    in    addition    to    tooth    crowding    and    associated    with    sleep    bruxism    which    can    include    abnormal    tooth    wear,    dental    pain,    temporomandibular    disorders,    and    headaches.    Patients    with    SB    reported    a    2–3    times    higher    prevalence    of    obstructive    sleep    apnea.    Recently,    RMMA    episodes    were    associated    with    an    increase    in    respiration    amplitude.    It    was    hypothesized    that    RMMA    may    serve    to    re‐establish    upper    airway    patency,    which    was    decreased    during    an    obstructive    apnea    or    hypopnea,    by    repositioning    the    retruded    mandible    and    re‐establishing    muscle    tone    in    the    tongue    during    swallowing.       

 

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