General Review on the Properties and Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biomedicine
Nano magnetism is a subset of physics that examines the magnetic properties of nanometer-sized systems. The magnetic force is caused due to the movement of charged electrical particles. Carriers of magnetic properties in solids are electrons, in which the electrons have a magnetic moment. The physical properties of the magnetic material are dependent on the direction measurement, which is referred to as anisotropy, which is present in many different types. The magnetic nanoparticle production process is carried out chemically in three different phases, after which nanoparticles are synthesized; the surface of these nanoparticles is modified to increase their stability.
Magnetic nanoparticles are used because of their unique characteristics in various fields, such as medicine, electronics, food industry, etc. Magnetic nanoparticles have many applications in medicine. These nanoparticles are used in MRI imaging as a contrast agent, which increases the quality of the images. These nanoparticles are widely used in Drug Delivery systems and Hyperthermia for treating cancer and destroying tumors and malignant masses. In the gene delivery system, DNA carrier nanoparticles are transmitted precisely and targeted into the cells of the body. In this method, the healthy gene is placed in an unhealthy gene and the patient’s cells are corrected. Nanoparticles can be used for centrifuges that increase the speed of the field, they can also be used to purge and filter the blood and remove viruses and bacteria from the blood. Nanoparticles are widely used in the manufacture of biosensors. The electrodes in the sensors can be modified using nanoparticles, which reduces the cost of construction. Glucose biosensor is made of SiO2 magnetic particles. Magnetic nanoparticles increase the sensitivity and performance of biosensors. Magnetic nanoparticles in different situations have different magnetic behaviors that are normally in Ferromagnetism or Ferrimagnetism mode.