Implantation: Through Ion Acceleration
Ion implantation may be a low-temperature process by which ions of 1 element are accelerated into a solid target, thereby changing the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the target. Ion implantation is employed in semiconductor unit fabrication and in metal finishing, also as in materials science research. The ions can alter the basic composition of the target (if the ions differ in composition from the target) if they stop and remain within the target. Ion implantation also causes chemical and physical changes when the ions hit the target at high energy. The crystal structure of the target are often damaged or maybe destroyed by the energetic collision cascades, and ions of sufficiently high energy (10s of MeV) can cause nuclear transmutation.