Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1): implications in atherosclerosis-related diseases
The development of atherosclerosis is a multifactorial process, but oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) has been recognized as a critical player in the pathogenesis of the disease. The lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) has recently been identified as the primary scavenger receptor of oxLDL, which mediates their detrimental biological effects in endothelial cells. Subsequent studies have revealed that LOX-1 is also expressed by other cells highly implicated in atherosclerosis, such as monocytes/macrophages, vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes and platelets. On one hand interaction of oxLDL with LOX-1 promotes oxidative stress and transcription of pro-inflammatory molecules, and on the other hand increases the expression of LOX-1 as a result of the vicious cycle, activated by the atherogens. Thus, LOX-1 has been suggested as a key molecule in vascular inflammation and in atherosclerotic plaque formation, destabilization, erosion and rupture.