Metabolic Basis of Treatment Failures; Autophagy and Malignant Cancer Progression
Cells use a number of pathways to generate energy and synthesize cellular building blocks including lipids, carbohydrates and nucleotides. Alterations in metabolic pathways have been implicated in many pathophysiological conditions. This mechanism is exploited by both resident epithelial cancer cells and the fibroblast. Indeed, cancer and normal cells differ dramatically in terms of their energy requirements and use of metabolic pathways. Mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic impairment contribute immensely to chemotherapeutic resistance and metastatic cancer progression through signaling pathways that revolve around autophagy. The current study reviewed relevant studies that underpin autophagy and highlight the metabolic alterations in the tumour microenvironment that may mediate chemoresistance and malignant cancer progression in both experimental and clinical models.