Molecular Assays for the Detection of COVID-19 and Future Prospects
COVID-19 disease is the current challenging global public health concern infectious human pandemic disease, caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In December 2019, this COVID-19 disease outbreak form Wuhan city, China and easily spread to several countries around the world. The causative agent of the COVID19 disease, SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus can transmit from an infected person having a respiratory tract symptom to a noninfected person during the incubation period of 2 days to 14 days through coughing, exhaling, sneezing with small droplets from nose or mouth. Humans with pre-existing health problems and also aged people are more vulnerable to acquire the coronavirus COVID-19 disease. The recommended measures to reduce the transmission of this deadly human coronavirus are interrupting human-human contact or apply social distance, taking face mask, stay home and isolate patients at early stages or self-quarantine. Early diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is the key for quick management of COVID-19 cases and control of the spread of the coronavirus based on the appropriate sample collection. Nowadays, the rapid, accurate and promising molecular laboratory diagnosis assay (such as RT-PCR, microarray, LAMP, point-of care, CRISPR) for detections of SARS-CoV-2 RNA of pathogenic coronaviruses would be valuable to controlling the sources of infection, prevent subsequent secondary spread, saving people’s lives and help patients to prevent the illness evolution.