Nanocrystalline and Nanostructured Metals and Alloys
Metallic materials (both pure metals and alloys) have been utilized since old times in widespread areas of human activities. Metals exhibit larger tensile strength, Young’s modulus and fracture toughness and they are more resistant to high-temperature heat treatments than polymers. They are also more malleable and less brittle than ceramics. Importantly, the range of applications of metals is not restricted to their use as structural materials; they have become crucial in other areas such as catalysis and electrocatalysis, electronics, anti-corrosion and antibiofouling protective coatings, magnetism, environmental healing, or medicine, amongst many others.