Predictors of Bidirectional Glenn Shunt Failure and Fontan Completion Rate in Patients with Single Ventricle
Background: The introduction of bidirectional Glenn (BDG) procedure in patients with functional single ventricles improved the clinical outcomes for all candidates undergoing total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). We tried to evaluate the obstacles that prevent patients to achieve TCPC after BDG.
Methods: All patients who underwent BDG at Leipzig Heart Centre from April 2003 to November 2013 were included in this study, except cases preceded by Norwood procedure.
Results: 82 patients were included in this study. 59 patients underwent TCPC (72%), while 12 patients were waiting for TCPC (14.6%). There were two in-hospital deaths (2.4%) after BDG. In two patients (2.4%), completion of TCPC was not possible, while 6 patients were lost during follow-up (7.3%). One patient had his BDG taken down (1.3%). Therefore the survival rate till completion of Fontan was 72% with another 14.6% waiting for TCPC. A univariate analysis revealed that patients with unbalanced atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD), previous repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVD), elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure and long operation time were significant predictors of death, take-down, or failure to progress to Fontan Operation. Thrombosis was found to be the main mechanism for morbidity and mortality.
Conclusion: The staged plan for single ventricle candidates provides excellent clinical results. The main risk factors for death, take-down, or failure to progress to Fontan Operation were elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, unbalanced AVSD, TAPVD and long operation time.