PTSD, Pain Medication and Addiction of Refugees in Iraq
The relationship of pain medication uses with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis was investigated among a sample of 213 Kurdish outpatients in refugee camps in Kurdistan-Region in Northern Iraq. One hundred twenty-four (58%) of the participants met DSM-V PTSD criteria. Those with PTSD had significantly higher use of pain medication (82%), as compared with non-PTSD patients (47%). Female (54%) with a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder had higher use than male (4%) of pain medication. For the effective treatment of trauma in relation to chronic pain and medication use, it is necessary to have a multi-modal, interdisciplinary and culture-sensitive approach when treating.