The Effect of Maternal Obesity on Maternal and Neonatal outcome in Pregnant Saudi Females
Background: Obese women are at an increased risk of various adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of obesity on maternal and neonatal outcomes in Saudi Pregnant Females and to compare obstetric outcomes by the level of maternal obesity.
Materials and Methods: A Retrospective cohort study included 2517 women with singleton gestations who gave birth at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Sauid Arabia in 2016. Pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes were identified using the hospital Medical Record Viewer Database. Women were divided into two groups based on their BMI in their first antenatal visit into, non-obese with BMI <30 kg/m2 and obese with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Furthermore obese women were subcategorized into two groups (BMI 30- 34.9 kg/m2, and BMI ≥ 35 kg/ m2, ) and pregnancy outcomes were compared between these and non-obese pregnant women.
Results: Obese women were significantly more likely to have gestational hypertension (OR=8.59; 95% CI, 5.23-14.14; P<0.0001), preeclampsia (OR=2.06; 95% CI, 1.14-3.73; P<0.0001), gestational diabetes (OR=5.56; 95% CI, 3.66-8.49; P<0.0001), dystocia (OR=2.14; 95% CI, 1.36-3.38; P<0.0001), induced labor (OR=2.64; 95% CI, 1.83-3.80; P<0.0001), failed induction of labor (OR=18.06; 95% CI, 8.85-36.84; P<0.0001), cesarean delivery (OR=1.76; 95% CI, 1.25-2.49; P=0.001), large-for-gestational-age newborns (OR=3.68; 95% CI, 2.51 5.39; P<0.0001). Significantly increased risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, dystocia and newborns with Apgar score ≤ 7 after 5 min was only observed in women with BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2.
Conclusions: Maternal obesity is significantly associated with an increased risk of gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, dystocia, labor induction, failed induction of labor, large-for-gestational-age newborns and cesarean delivery.