The Value of Conjunctival Immunohistochemistry Analysis for the Diagnosis of Ocular Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid
Ocular Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid (OMMP), a subset of Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid (MMP) is an autoimmunemediated progressive cicatrizing conjunctivitis with the potential for corneal blindness. Direct Immunofluorescence (DIF) is considered the gold standard for the diagnostic confirmation of this condition; nevertheless, in many cases, this immunopathological technique is inconclusive. A 54 years old female presented to our service complaining of progressive diminished visual acuity, foreign body sensation, and photophobia in both eyes. The slit-lamp examination showed bulbar and palpebral conjunctival hyperaemia, as well as bilateral corneal scarring. During clinical follow-up, progressive conjunctival scarring with inferior fornix foreshortening, symblepharon formation, and significant corneal opacity dramatically diminished her visual acuity. A conjunctival biopsy was negative for DIF; therefore, Immunohistochemical analysis (IHCA) for IgG, IgA, and C3 immune reactants linear deposition on the conjunctival Basement-membrane zone (BMZ) was necessary for diagnosis confirmation. The present clinical case highlights the utility of paraffin-embedded conjunctival IHCA as an alternative immunohistopathology tool for the diagnosis of OMMP when DIF is non-conclusive.