Trend of Viral Hepatitis and Infectious Diseases
WHO has been intensifying its efforts to support countries in addressing viral hepatitis. The Global Hepatitis Programme was established in 2011 following a World Health Assembly resolution which also identified July 28, World Hepatitis Day as an official WHO day. Blood is one of the major sources of transmission of HBV, HCV, and many other infectious diseases, physicians and patients are becoming more concerned about safe transfusion of blood. Direct percutaneous inoculation is the most direct mode of transmission of HCV and HBV; several studies have demonstrated that sexual, household, occupational and perinatal transmission may also be of importance. Health workers, especially physicians and medical students are always in direct contact with patients and are vulnerable to the acquisition of these infectious diseases. They are involved in blood transfusion, injections and surgical operations in their practices. They should be aware of the risk involved in the treatment. Viral hepatitis caused by HBV constitutes a major economic and public health problem through the world particularly in developing countries. Infection in vaccine recipients was limited to those who failed to acquire antibody after vaccination and to whom exposure to hepatitis B virus occurred before vaccine induced protective antibody appeared. Effective hepatitis B vaccine has been available since, which was most effective in eliminating HBV transmission and development of carrier state and its complication. Iraq with a prevalence rate of 4.3% among normal Iraqi population is among countries of intermediate hepatitis B endemicity. Countries with intermediate or high endemicity must have mass immunization for all infants at birth.