Journal of Diagnostic Techniques and Biomedical AnalysisISSN: 2469-5653

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Research Article, J Diagnos Tech Biomed Anal Vol: 2 Issue: 1

Bacillus Calmette-Gu�rin (BCG) Vaccine-Induced Disease in Healthy Infants: Identification of BCG Gene from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue

Takako Yoshioka1, Junichiro Nishi2, Kiyofumi Ohkusu3, Kazuhito Hatanaka1, Sohsuke Yamada4, Kazuhiko Nakame5, Yoshifumi Kawano2, Tatsuru Kaji5 and Akihide Tanimoto1*
1Department of Molecular and Cellular Pathology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan
2Microbiology Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan
3Department of Microbiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan
4Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, kitakyushu, Japan
5Pediatric Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan
Corresponding author : Akihide Tanimoto, MD, PhD
Department of Tumor Pathology, Kagoshima University of Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544, Japan
Tel: 81-99-275-5263; Fax: 81-99-264-6348
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: February 18, 2014 Accepted: April 07, 2014 Published: June 05, 2014
Citation: YoshiokaT, Nishi J, Ohkusu K, Hatanaka K, Yamada S, et al. (2014) Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine-Induced Disease in Healthy Infants: Identification of BCG Gene from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue. J Diagnos Tech Biomed Anal 2:1. doi:10.4172/2469-5653.1000108

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Abstract

Background: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccineinduced systemic complication is rare but localized skin lesion develops in the site of inoculation in healthy infants.

Methods: In this report, we described three cases of BCG vaccineinduced skin lesions in healthy immunocompetent infants and a method of identification of BCG gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) form fresh frozen of formalin-fixed and paraffinembedded tissue samples.

Results: These cases had a history of BCG vaccination but no family history of tuberculosis and no contact with patients of tuberculosis. Two cases developed cutaneous granuloma in the axilla of ipsilateral side of BCG inoculation. Another case showed granulomatous osteomyelitis of the left 6th rib. Histological examination demonstrated typical pathologic findings for epithelioid granuloma with caseation necrosis, indicating mycobacterium infection. PCR analysis from fresh frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue rapidly confirmed the infection of Mycobacterium bovis BCG but not M. tuberculosis.

Conclusion: BCG infection should be considered even in healthy infants with a history of BCG vaccination and histology of epithelioid granuloma with caseation necrosis. In such cases, BCG gene identification by PCR would be useful even from formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue samples.

Keywords: Tuberculosis; BCG; Infant; PCR; Granuloma; Osteomyelitis

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