Cell Biology: Research & TherapyISSN: 2324-9293

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Research Article, Cell Biol Res Ther Vol: 3 Issue: 1

Cannabis resin extract in Parkinson's disease: Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Histological Evaluation

Shaimaa A. ElShebiney1*, Ezzeddein S. El-Denshary2, Omar M.E. Abdel-Salam1, Neveen A. Salem1, Zakaria A. El-Khyat3, Nermeen El Shaffie4 and Dalaal M. Abdallah2
1Toxicology and Narcotics Department, National Research Center (NRC), Cairo, Egypt
2Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
3Medical Biochemistry Department, NRC, Cairo, Egypt
4Clinical Pathology Department, NRC, Cairo, Egypt
Corresponding author : Shaimaa A. ElShebiney
Toxicology and Narcotics Department, National Research Center (NRC), Cairo, Egypt
Tel: +202-33371362; Fax: +202-33370931
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: May 13, 2014 Accepted: July 20, 2014 Published: July 30, 2014
Citation: ElShebiney SA, El-Denshary ES, Abdel-Salam OME, Salem NA, El-Khyat ZA (2014) Cannabis Resin Extract in Parkinson’s Disease: Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Histological Evaluation. Cell Biol: Res Ther 3:1. doi:10.4172/2324-9293.1000112

Abstract

Cannabis sativa (Family Cannabaceae, L.) has been used in China and India for thousands of years as a medicine. The main active constituents of cannabis are Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD). Currently, THC and CBD are being carefully used in conditions, such as multiple sclerosis, cancer pain, and chemotherapy associated emesis. The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) is considered responsible for most THC effects involving sedation, analgesia, hypothermia, catalepsy, and euphoria . CB1Rs are abundantly distributed in the basal ganglia , where they are co-localized with both dopamine (D)1 and 2 receptors on striatonigral dynorphin/substance P and striatopallidal enkephalinergic neuron. In striatum, CB1R is highly expressed in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and glutamatergic presynaptic terminals, where it mediates retrograde endocannabinoid signalling . The inhibition of GABA and glutamate systems in basal ganglia, in turn suppresses D1-mediated effects to exert an anti-dyskinetic action. Additionally, the basal ganglia expresses the cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2R), particularly in glial cells entailing a role for CB2R-agonists in reducing microglia toxic effects and inflammatory reactions.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease; Cannabis resin extract; Levodopa; Rotenone; Mice; Oxidative stress; Tyrosine-hydroxylase; Neurotransmitters

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