Opinion Article, J Trauma Stress Disor Treat Vol: 10 Issue: 6
A Brief Note on Children Suffering with Psychosis and Schizophrenia
Department of Psychology, PO Box 905, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
Corresponding author: Vanessa Hirt, Department of Psychology, University Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany, Email: hit@ uni-konstanz.de
Citation: Hirt V (2021 A Brief Note on Children Suffering with Psychosis and Schizophrenia. J Trauma Stress Disor Treat 10:(6) 245
Received: June 09, 2021 Accepted: June 23, 2021 Published: June 30, 2021
Keywords: Childhood-onset schizophrenia, Diagnosis
Psychiatric illnesses, particularly psychotic disorders in children and adolescents, have become more widely recognized over the last decade. Because of this increased awareness, as well as shifting patterns in mental health care, primary care physicians and pediatricians are increasingly being called upon to treat psychiatrically sick children and their families. The backbone of contemporary psychosis evaluation and management is primary care practitioners and mental health services (e.g., in cocolated care, embedded care practices, patient-centered homes, and consultation).
What is Psychosis and How Common is it in Young People
Psychosis is defined as the presence of either delusions (false, unreasonable beliefs) or hallucinations in a narrow sense (false perceptions involving any sensory modality). Psychosis can also emerge as mental abnormalities, behavioral disorganization, or catatonia, according to a broader definition . According to community-based surveys, the incidence of psychotic symptoms may be significantly higher than previously thought, with a metaanalysis estimating a prevalence rate of 5%–8% in the general population (which is nearly 10 times higher than the prevalence of diagnosed psychotic disorders)..
Characteristics of Psychosis in Children
Hallucinations, poor functioning, flattened affect, and social disengagement are the most typical symptoms among young persons with psychosis. Because children sometimes underestimate, misrepresent, or avoid reporting their symptoms, ca Interviews with the child and his or her family members, review of records, information gathered from other involved adults (including a detailed description of the presentation and course of the psychotic symptoms), attention to developmental delays, a family psychiatric history, a history of abuse and/or neglect, and a mental status evaluator should all be included in a comprehensive psychiatric assessment . Regivers are more likely than the child patients themselves to report these issues to the clinicians.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) fifth edition makes many adjustments to the schizophrenia category, including raising the symptom threshold. Delusions, hallucinations, incoherent speech, highly dis organized or catatonic conduct, or negative symptoms such as affective flattening are now required for a diagnosis of schizophrenia. In addition, a category called "attenuated psychosis syndrome" was added to the research section for people who don't fulfil the criteria for a full-blown psychotic condition but have slight variations of pertinent symptoms. Clinicians must also be aware of developmental, cultural, and intellectual influences on assessment and diagnosis. Being aware of such aspects allows the doctor to accurately assess clinical data and distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate behaviors.
Changing the surroundings to reduce unnecessary stress (which raises the risk of psychotic episodes) and adjusting the degree of stimulation to the patient's level of alertness and overall functioning are common psychosocial therapies. Identifying the elements that contribute to the patient's clinical deterioration aids in establishing suitable expectations at home and in the classroom. Cognitivebehavioral approaches that assess evidence for beliefs or think through reasons for a patient's perceptions can aid in the modification of dysfunctional behaviors. A consistent framework with same words/techniques used at home, school, and with friends may enable the patient to take a standardized approach to events throughout settings and reduce everyday even misperceptions.
When examining children and adolescents with emotional and behavioural disorders, clinicians should be cautious and evaluate psychotic illnesses. Clinicians should use a variety of diagnostic and treatment techniques to limit the risks associated with chronic psychotic disease, given the high developmental, financial, and functional toll.