Commentary, J Vet Sci Med Diagn Vol: 0 Issue: 0
Enrichment of Egg Laying Hen Cages Ultimately Ends Up In Higher Bone Quality
Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W), Department Knowledge and Valorisation of Agricultural Products, European Union Reference Laboratory for Animal Proteins in Feedingstuffs (EURL-AP), Gembloux, Belgium
*Corresponding author: Shujun Dong, Agricultural Research Centre (CRAW), Department Knowledge and Valorisation of Agricultural Products, European Union Reference Laboratory for Animal Proteins in Feedingstuffs (EURL-AP), Gembloux, Belgium, E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: 02 August, 2021; Accepted date: 23 August, 2021; Published date: 30 August, 2021
Poultry farming is that the kind of farming that raises domesticated birds like chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese to supply meat or eggs for food. It’s originated from the agricultural era. Poultry principally chickens square measure farmed in nice numbers. Over sixty billion chicken’s square measure killed for consumption annually. Chickens raised for eggs square measure referred to as layers, whereas chickens raised for meat square measure referred to as broilers. In thus, the national organization overseeing poultry production is that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In the UK, the national organisation is that the Department for atmosphere, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). Commercial hens sometimes begin egg laying eggs at 16–21 weeks archaic, though production bit by bit declines before long when from about twenty five weeks archaic. In 1999, the European Union council directive 1999/74/EC illegal typical battery cages for egg laying hens throughout the European Union from Jan 1, 2012; they were illegal antecedent in different countries together with European nation. In response to those bans, development of example business fitted out cage systems began within the Eighties. fitted out cages, typically referred to as 'enriched' or 'modified' cages, square measure cages for egg-laying hens that are designed to permit the hens to perform their "natural behaviors" while holding their economic and agriculture blessings, and additionally offer a number of the welfare blessings of non-cage systems. Several style options of fitted out cages are incorporated as a result of analysis in animal welfare science has shown them to be of profit to the hens. In the UK, the Defra "Code for the Welfare of egg laying Hens" states fitted out cages ought to offer a minimum of 750 cm2 of cage space per hen, 600 cm2 of that ought to be usable; the peak of the cage apart from that higher than the usable space ought to be a minimum of twenty cm at each purpose and no cage ought to have a complete space that's but 2000 cm2. additionally, fitted out cages ought to offer a nest, litter specified pecking and scratching square measure doable, applicable perches permitting a minimum of fifteen cm per hen, a claw-shortening device, and a feed through which can be used while not restriction providing twelve cm per hen. fitted out cages (Enriched) provide the hens extra space than the standard battery cages, so every bird might unfold their wings while not touching each other if desired. Enrichment like nest boxes, perches, and dirt baths are provided so the birds might do their natural behaviors like nesting, roosting, and scratching like they were outdoors. Enrichment of egg laying hen cages ultimately ends up in higher bone quality. This can be results of the enhanced activity within the hens from the extra house and enrichment provided within the fitted out housing system. This suggests that in several countries, by about seventy two weeks archaic, flocks square measure thought of economically unviable and square measure slaughtered when about twelve months of egg production, though chickens can naturally live for six or a lot of years. In some countries, hen’s square measure force moulted to reinvigorate egg-laying. Environmental conditions square measure typically mechanically controlled in egg-laying systems. For instance, the length of the sunshine part is abs initio enhanced to prompt the start of egg-laying at 16–20 weeks archaic and so mimics summer day length that stimulates the hens to continue egg laying eggs all year round; usually, egg production happens solely within the hotter months. Some business breeds of hen will turn out over three hundred eggs a year. In organic egg-laying systems, chickens are unconfined. Organic systems square measure primarily based upon restrictions on the routine use of artificial nutrient colorants, in-feed or in-water medications, different food additives and artificial amino acids, and a lower stocking density and smaller cluster sizes. The Soil Association standards wont to certify organic flocks within the UK indicate a most outdoors stocking density of 1,000 birds per area unit and a host of 2,000 hens in every poultry house. In the UK, organic egg laying hens aren't habitually beak-trimmed. In intensive broiler sheds, the air will become extremely contaminated with ammonia from the stool. During this case, a farmer should run a lot of fans to herald a lot of clean contemporary air. If not this may harm the chickens' eyes and metabolic process systems and might cause painful burns on their legs (called hock burns) and blisters on their feet. Broilers bred for quick growth have a high rate of leg deformities as a result of the big breast muscles cause distortions of the developing legs and pelvis, and also the birds cannot support their enhanced weight. In cases wherever the chickens become game and cannot walk farmers got to get in and pull them out. As a result of they can't move simply, the chickens aren't able to modify their atmosphere to avoid heat, cold or dirt as they'd in natural conditions.