Opinion Article, J Virol Antivir Res Vol: 10 Issue: 1
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Department of pharmacy, QTC college of Pharmacy, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: January 5, 2019 Accepted: January 19, 2020 Published: January 26, 2021
Citation: Bainaboina G (2021) Human Immunodeficiency Virus. J Virol Antivir Res 10:1 206.
HIV is a virus that targets the immune system and causes it to malfunction. HIV affects and destroys CD4 cells, a type of immune cell known as a T cell, if left untreated. As HIV kills more CD4 cells, the body becomes more vulnerable to a number of diseases and cancers. HIV is transferred from person to person by bodily fluids such as Saline, Sperm fluids in the vaginal and rectal canals, Milk from a woman.
Keywords: Antiretroviral therapy ; Fusion inhibitors; viral stock
The virus does not propagate through the air, or through any friendly contact. HIV is a lifelong disease because it integrates itself into the DNA cells. There is currently no medicine that can remove HIV from the body, but many scientists are trying to find .It is, however, possible to treat HIV and live with the virus for several years with medical treatment, including antiretroviral therapy .A individual with HIV is more likely to develop complications if they do not receive treatment. AIDS is a disorder that can evolve in HIV-positive individuals. This is the most advanced level of HIV infection. However, just because someone has HIV does not mean they will develop AIDS; CD4 cells are destroyed by HIV. CD4 counts in healthy adults range from 500 to 1,600 per cubic millimeter. AIDS is diagnosed when a person's CD4 count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter. If AIDS develop, the immune system may damage against the diseases and infections such as Tuberculosis, pneumonia, fungal condition in mouth or throat can be caused. HIV does not transfer through sharing foods or drinks, sweat, saliva.
Tests Used to Diagnose HIV
Antigen or antibody tests
These are commonly used tests. These tests check the blood forantigens and antibodies. An antibody is a type of protein thatreplicates the infection. on other hand ,the antigens is a virus thatoperates the immune system.
Nucleic acid tests
This test is expensive and it is suitable for early symptoms ofHIV. This test doesn’t look for antibodies; it looks for the virusitself. It takes 5- 21 days to be visible in the blood; it is confirmed byantibody test.
Symptoms of HIV
Skin rash, Nausea, Headache, Sore throat, chills and fever.During this period their viral stock is high, if there is high viral stockthe transmission of HIV is more. HIV symptoms may vary fromperson to person.
Treatment for HIV
Treatment should start as soon as possible after diagnosis of HIVand viral stock. The main treatment is antiretroviral therapy this maystops virus from increasing. It also protects the CD4 cells that makethe immune system strong against the diseases. This therapy alsohelps to reduce the spreading of HIV to others. If the treatment iseffective and viral load will be invisible. If the person stopsantiretroviral therapy the viral stock may increase and again mayattack CD 4 cells.HIV medications: Many antiretroviral therapy medications areaccepted for the treatment of HIV.These medications also preventHIV from destroying CD4 cells. There is different type ofantiretroviral medication such as:Fusion inhibitors, Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, NonNucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, Protease inhibit