Journal of Clinical Images and Case Reports

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Opinion Article, J Clin Image Case Rep Vol: 7 Issue: 1

Immune System and Immunotherapy in Clinical Practice

Michelia Krose*

Department of Clinical Genetics, Columbia University, New York, USA

*Corresponding Author: Michelle Ross
Department of Clinical Genetics, Columbia University, New York, USA

Received date: 27 January, 2023, Manuscript No. CICR-23-90637;

Editor assigned date: 30 January, 2023, PreQC No. CICR-23-90637(PQ);

Reviewed date: 14 February, 2023, QCNo CICR-23-90637;

Revised date: 21 February 2023, Manuscript No. CICR-23-90637(R);

Published date: 28 February 2023 DOI: 10.4172/CICR.1000230.

Citation: Krose M (2023) Immune System and Immunotherapy in Clinical Practicee. J Clin Image Case Rep 7:2.


Clinical immunology is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders related to the immune system. The immune system is responsible for protecting the body against harmful pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, and abnormal cells, such as cancer cells. Clinical immunologists are specialists who diagnose and manage disorders that affect the immune system, including autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiency, allergies, and hypersensitivity reactions. Some examples of autoimmune diseases that clinical immunologists might diagnose and manage include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis.


Immunodeficiency’s can be inherited or acquired and may result in increased susceptibility to infections. Allergies, such as asthma and hay fever, occur when the immune system overreacts to harmless substances in the environment. Hypersensitivity reactions, such as anaphylaxis, can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention. Clinical immunologists may use a variety of tests to diagnose immune system disorders, including blood tests, skin tests, and imaging studies. Treatment options may include medications, such as immunosuppressant’s and immunomodulators, or therapies to boost the immune system, such as immunoglobulin therapy or bone marrow transplantation.

Immune work system

The immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body from infections and diseases. It is responsible for identifying and eliminating harmful foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria, while also recognizing and attacking abnormal cells, such as cancer cells. Immunotherapy is a type of treatment that utilizes the power of the immune system to target and destroy cancer cells. It works by boosting the body's natural defenses or by using man-made immune system proteins to stimulate an immune response against cancer cells. It can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

Types of immunotherapy

There are several types of immunotherapy used in clinical practice, including checkpoint inhibitors, CAR T-cell therapy, and monoclonal antibodies. Checkpoint inhibitors block proteins that prevent the immune system from attacking cancer cells, while CAR T-cell therapy involves modifying the patient's own T-cells to recognize and destroy cancer cells. Monoclonal antibodies are man-made proteins that target specific proteins on the surface of cancer cells. CAR T-cell therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses genetically modified T cells to attack cancer cells. T cells are a type of immune cell that can recognize and destroy abnormal cells in the body, including cancer cells. Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy involves extracting T cells from a patient's blood, genetically engineering them to produce special receptors called CARs that can recognize and bind to a specific protein on the surface of cancer cells, and then infusing the CAR T cells back into the patient's bloodstream.

Once in the body, the CAR T cells can seek out and bind to cancer cells that express the targeted protein, triggering the T cells to attack and destroy the cancer cells. CAR T-cell therapy has shown promising results in clinical trials for certain types of blood cancers, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia and certain types of lymphoma. Immunotherapy has shown promise in the treatment of various types of cancer, including melanoma, lung cancer, and bladder cancer. However, not all patients respond to immunotherapy, and it can also cause side effects, such as fatigue, rash, and diarrhea.

The use of immunotherapy in clinical practice is an important development in cancer treatment, as it represents a new approach to fighting cancer that has the potential to improve outcomes and reduce side effects compared to traditional treatments like chemotherapy and radiation. However, further research is needed to optimize the use of immunotherapy and identify which patients are most likely to benefit from this approach.

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