Research Article, Jldt Vol: 9 Issue: 5
Insulin Resistance & its Mechanism
Objective: Viral hepatitis B and C are the major threat to public health. A retrospective study to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Bannu during the study period was conducted. Methods: The data was collected from the official register maintained by the pathology laboratory in the district headquarter hospital, Bannu. Results: In contrast to the previous studies, HBV cases contributed ≥70% share of overall occurrence of both types of hepatitis in the study area. Similarly, males also showed ≥70% prevalence of the disease compared to females. HBV is more prevailed compared to HCV in males (except August) and in females (except August and November). HBV is dominant in all age groups. Age group 15-30 Y constituted > 50% share, while age group < 5 Y contributed < 5% of the overall prevalence of both type of viral infections. Conclusion: HBV was more prevailed than HCV, while male compared to females as well as age group (15-30 Y) among all age groups demonstrated higher prevalence of hepatitis.
Keywords: Resistance; Syndrome.
Insulin resistance, recently acknowledged as a strong predictor of disease in adults, has become the leading element of the metabolic syndrome and resumed as a focus of research. The condition exists when insulin levels are higher than anticipated relative to the level of glucose. Insulin resistance has been assigned a central place in the metabolic distractions associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes A hormone acutely restorative its target cell and simultaneously resets the responsiveness of the target cell to ensuing doses of hormone. Homologous desensitization, the ability of a stimulatory ligand to anesthetize its target cells to its action, is widespread. Insulin resistance is a state in which a given concentration of insulin manufactures a less-than-expected biological effect. Insulin resistance has also been arbitrarily defined as the obligation of 200 or more units of insulin per day to accomplish glycemic control and to prevent ketosis. The syndromes of insulin resistance actually make up a broad clinical spectrum, which involves obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, as well as an utmost insulin-resistant state.
Studies of glucose discard in normal humans suggested that skeletal muscle accounts for the majority of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and that >80% of this glucose is then set aside as glycogen. The rate of glycogen incorporated in skeletal muscle was ≈50% lower in diabetic subjects than in normal volunteers. the only other organ competent of storing a significant amount of glycogen is the liver. Lipid infusions drawn to increase plasma fatty acid concentration in humans and rodents reduce insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Furthermore, the fall in insulin responsiveness during such clamp procedures only occurs various hours after elevations in FA concentrations, in keeping with the idea that FA vulnerability in skeletal muscle and liver is responsible for this phenomenon. Fish like cod, salmon, and sardines are sensible sources. Nonsteroid fatty acid levels in healthy subjects were conserved at either high or low levels during hyper insulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Maintaining high free fatty acid levels for 5 hours bring about the expected reduction in insulin sensitivity, as evaluated by glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle, just as had been noticed in type 2 diabetics and their insulin-resistant offspring. Lipid accumulation in ectopic sites can occur in 3 ways: rised uptake of fatty acids, increased synthesis within the tissue involved, or bring down fatty acid oxidation/disposal.as alluded to above, it is clear that lipid infusion leads to lipid aggregation in skeletal muscle and short-term high-fat feeding increases liver triglycerides;33 in both cases, insulin resistance ensues. Macrophages account for a significant proportion of the stromovascular fraction. Physiological adaptability in insulin sensitivity is an important appliance by which the body can regulate nutrient partitioning between tissues, necessitated by wide variations in dietary intake and physical activity, and life events like rapid pubertal growth, pregnancy, illness and ageing Pharmacological address to suppress insulin secretion in humans also support the view that hyperinsulinemia may have more of a primary role in the MetS.
A hormone acutely restorative its target cell and simultaneously resets the responsiveness of the target cell to ensuing doses of hormone. Lipid infusions drawn to increase plasma fatty acid concentration in humans and rodents reduce insulin-stimulated glucose disposal.