Commentary, Vol: 7 Issue: 2
Integrating Crop Rotation for Sustainable Soil Pathogen Control
Received date: 22 March, 2023, Manuscript No. JSPH-23-100648;
Editor assigned date: 24 March, 2023, Pre QC No. JSPH-23-100648(PQ);
Reviewed date: 17 April, 2023, QC. No JSPH-23-100648;
Revised date: 24 April, 2023, Manuscript No. JSPH-23-100648 (R);
Published date: 28 April, 2023, DOI: 10.4172/jsph.10000188.
Citation: Matthew B, Zhu C (2023) Integrating Crop Rotation for Sustainable Soil Pathogen Control. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 7:2.
Plant pathogens establish close associations with plants to gain advantages to host resources had to live on, develop, and reproduce. This system, which includes infection, colonization, and pathogen duplicate, is known as pathogenesis.
A few economically important plant illnesses are due to pathogens which can be found in soil. Several of those organisms have advanced specialized survival systems which includes hardened mycelial packs (sclerotic) or thick-walled spores (chlamydospores or oospores). Others live as saprophytes, making their residing by using decaying ineffective plant tissues. Lots of these commonly referred to as soil borne pathogens persist in soil over long time period, from developing season to each other, no matter the fact that environmental conditions don’t assist illness development. Even as maximum positive situations (proper moisture, temperature, and presence of more than a few plant) stand up, the ones soil-borne pathogen systems often feature supply of inoculum for ailment development. Even if or no longer the aim is to determine the causal agent of a sickness problem or enumeration of the levels of soil-pathogen population in advance than planting, our finding out services are designed as per their choice.
Soil-borne pathogens are microorganisms, including fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and viruses, that reside in the soil and can infect and damage plants. These pathogens often survive in soil residues or infected plant debris, persisting from one crop cycle to the next. Continuous cultivation of susceptible crops in the same field provides an ideal environment for the build-up and spread of soil-borne pathogens, leading to increased disease incidence and severity.
Crop rotation is a time-honored practice that involves systematically alternating the types of crops grown in a particular field over successive seasons or years. By diversifying the crop species and families, farmers disrupt the life cycles of soil-borne pathogens, thereby reducing their population density in the soil. Different crops exhibit varying levels of susceptibility or resistance to specific pathogens, making them ideal rotation partners.
Implementing a well-designed crop rotation plan can help break the disease cycle by depriving pathogens of their preferred host plants. When susceptible crops are followed by non-host or lesssusceptible crops, the pathogens starve or decline in population, reducing the disease pressure in subsequent cropping cycles.
Some fungal issues that occur annually can be avoided by using early-season treatments of Sulphur or copper, both of which are considered natural remedies. Soil-borne diseases remain a source of frustration for outdoor gardeners. Planting vegetable varieties that have resistance to common diseases can help reduce the occurrence of problems and the spread of soil-borne pathogens. While it may not always be feasible to find resistant varieties, if they are able to, it will certainly benefit your garden.
By introducing a different crop into the rotation, the composition and activity of the soil microbiota can change. Certain microorganisms in the soil have antagonistic or suppressive effects on soil-borne pathogens. They can compete with the pathogens for resources, produce antimicrobial compounds, or induce systemic resistance in plants, effectively weakening or destroying the propagules of the pathogens.
Additionally, unrelated crops in rotation can have different root exudates, which are compounds released by plant roots that influence the soil microbiota. These root exudates can attract beneficial microorganisms that contribute to disease suppression. Furthermore, the growth and decomposition of plant residues from different crops can affect the soil microbiota composition and nutrient availability, potentially reducing the survival and infectivity of soil-borne pathogens.
At the same time as crop rotations do efficiently reduce populations of a few soil-borne pathogens, e.g., root sickness of cereals due to Gaeumannomyces graminis variety for example, Rhizoctonia solani, the fungal root pathogen which reasons ‘bare patch’ of cereals, has a huge host variety and as a result impacts the increase of many plant species. It is also an inexperienced saprophyte, quite truly colonizing particulate soil organic matter. For that reason, even as there is evidence that inoculum tier of this pathogen decline following medic or pea vegetation, achieving effective control becomes more challenging of this pathogen through crop rotations.
The decrease in sugarcane productivity in Queensland, Australia serves as a notable example of a crop as a monoculture, coupled with substantial cultivation of the soil prior to crop repute quo and mechanized harvesting, can result in the accumulation of rootpathogenic fungi (e.g., Pachymetra chaunorhiza) and nematodes (e.g., Pratylenchus zeae) which reduce sugarcane yields. The introduction of a rotation crop collectively with soybeans on the end of the canedeveloping cycle is effective in lowering populations of those pathogens to low levels and developing the yield of the subsequent cane crop. In spite of the capacity natural control advantages of crop rotations, there are regularly economic disincentives associated with this practice seen by using farmers. The ones encompass the economics of developing more than one crop the rotation crop may also offer an awful lot less financial return than the number one crop and the time required to reap effective sickness bargain it could be essential to expand the rotation crop for 365 days or more.