Journal of Ergonomics Research

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Perspective,  J Ergon Res Vol: 6 Issue: 1

Musculoskeletal Disorders: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention

Paul Cline*

1Department of Production and Systems, University of Minho, Guimaraes, Portugal

*Corresponding Author: Paul Cline
Department of Production and Systems, University of Minho, Guimaraes, Portugal;

Received date: 20-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. JEOR-23-93683;

Editor assigned date: 22-Feb-2023, PreQC No. JEOR-23-93683 (PQ);

Reviewed date: 09-Mar-2023, QC No JEOR-23-93683;

Revised date: 16-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. JEOR-23-93683 (R);

Published date: 23-Mar-2023, DOI: 10.4172/ Jeor.1000117.

Citation: Cline P (2023) Musculoskeletal Disorders: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention. J Ergon Res 6:1.


The Musculo Skeletal Disorders (MSDs) are a group of conditions that affect the muscles, bones, tendons, and nerves. These disorders are common among people who perform repetitive tasks or work in improper positions. MSDs can cause pain, swelling, and stiffness in the affected area and can limit a person's ability to perform daily activities. MSDs can be caused by a variety of factors, including repetitive motions, overuse of muscles, poor posture, and obdurate positions. People who work in industries such as construction, manufacturing, and healthcare are at a higher risk of developing MSDs. Additionally, factors such as age, obesity, and genetics can also contribute to the development of MSDs. A wide range of professionals may be involved in the care of people suffering from musculoskeletal disorders. The majority of musculoskeletal conditions are initially diagnosed and treated in primary care, with family medicine and general internal medicine providing the majority of primary care for adults. Musculoskeletal disorders are also diagnosed and treated by physical medicine and rehabilitation physicians. When a musculoskeletal disorder is associated with a work-related injury or impairment, occupational medicine physicians may be involved in the diagnosis and treatment. Patients with functional limitations due to musculoskeletal conditions are frequently managed by physical medicine and rehabilitation physicians, physical therapists, and occupational therapists. Patients with potential inflammatory joint or connective tissue diseases or autoimmune disorders are frequently referred to rheumatologists for diagnosis and, if necessary, diseasemodifying antirheumatic drug therapy. Patients suffering from advanced joint destruction due to OA, inflammatory disease, or trauma are typically referred to orthopaedic surgeons for surgical treatment, including joint replacement. Patients suffering from inflammatory arthropathies that have been complicated by extraarticular disease manifestations may benefit from additional specialist consultation (patients with RA-associated interstitial lung disease benefit from consultation with a pulmonologist).


The symptoms of MSDs vary depending on the affected area of the body. Common symptoms include pain, stiffness, swelling, and weakness. People with MSDs may also experience tingling or numbness in the affected area. Symptoms can range from mild to severe and can significantly impact a person's quality of life. Preventing MSDs involves taking steps to reduce the risk of injury. This can include using ergonomic equipment, taking frequent breaks, and practicing good posture. Employers can also implement training programs to teach employees how to avoid injury and provide access to resources such as physical therapy. Additionally, maintaining a healthy lifestyle by exercising regularly and eating a balanced diet can help reduce the risk of developing MSDs.


MSDs are a common and often painful condition that can significantly impact a person's quality of life. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and prevention of MSDs, individuals can take steps to reduce the risk of injury and maintain their overall health and wellbeing. Employers can also play a role in preventing MSDs by providing a safe work environment and access to resources such as physical therapy. There are numerous medications and nonpharmacologic treatments available to relieve pain caused by musculoskeletal disorders. A recent systematic review of the evidence on the treatment of musculoskeletal pain discovered that exercise and psychosocial interventions were effective in relieving pain and improving function across multiple common musculoskeletal pain conditions. Pharmacologic interventions such as oral and topical analgesics and corticosteroid injections (for knee and shoulder pain but not back or neck pain) provided moderate but inconsistent evidence of short-term pain relief. Limited evidence suggested that manual therapies (e.g., manipulation, massage), acupuncture, and other treatments could help with pain relief.

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