Cell Biology: Research & TherapyISSN: 2324-9293

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Research Article, Cell Biol Henderson Nv Vol: 7 Issue: 1

Scorpion Kaliotoxin Reverses Hyperkalemia, High Serum [K+ ], in Skeletal Muscle

Rohan Lal*

4018 Saint Charles Dr, Birmingham, USA

*Corresponding Author : Rohan Lal
4018 St Charles Dr, Birmingham, AL 35242, USA
Tel: (205)259-9469
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: May 08, 2018 Accepted: June 02, 2018 Published: June 06, 2018

Citation: Lal R (2018) Scorpion Kaliotoxin Reverses Hyperkalemia, High Serum [K+], in Skeletal Muscle. Cell Biol (Henderson, NV) 7:1. doi: 10.4172/2324-9293.1000141

Abstract

Scorpion toxin causes symptoms such as nausea, muscle twitching, and tachycardia. Kaliotoxin, a scorpion toxin, inhibits voltagegated and leak potassium channels, making cells less excitable. Excess potassium ions increase cell excitability and allow an action potential to occur at a lower threshold voltage. To determine the effects of high [K+] and kaliotoxin, action potential thresholds were measured. Under hyperkalemic conditions, threshold voltage was reduced significantly (p<<0.01) from mean control values. When exposed to high [K+], muscle contraction force showed a significant increase (p=0.03) from control, 1.60g (+/- 0.877; n=5), to 2.56g (+/-1.82; n=5). In the presence of kaliotoxin and hyperkalemic solution, muscle contraction force showed a significant increase (p<<0.01) from 2.07g (+/- 2.07; n=10) to 7.82g (+/- 5.11; n=10) and the latent period showed a significant decrease (p=0.28) from a control value of 0.04s (+/- 0.04; n=10) to 0.03 (+/- 0.03; n=10). Hyperkalemic solutions decreased the threshold level significantly (p<<0.01) while scorpion kaliotoxin, diluted in hyperkalemic solution, allowed the threshold voltage to significantly surpass (p<0.01) normal levels. Scorpion kaliotoxins reduced K+ channel activation and can return cell excitability, under hyperkalemic conditions, to normal. Scorpion kaliotoxin is a potential treatment to reverse the effects of hyperkalemia.

Keywords: Kaliotoxin; α-KT toxins; Hyperkalemia; Lychas mucronatus; Resting membrane potential; Tetrodotoxin

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