Journal of Virology & Antiviral ResearchISSN: 2324-8955

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Research Article, J Virol Antivir Res Vol: 4 Issue: 4

Seroprevalence, Immunostatus and Factors Associated with Blood Borne Viral Infections Among Egyptian Municipal Solid Waste Workers

Ekram W Abd El- Wahab1*, Safaa M Eassa1#, Sameh E Lotfi2, Amira M Kotkat1, Hanan Z. Shatat1 and Sanaa A El Masry1#
1Tropical Health Department, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt.
2Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt
#equal contribution of both authors
Corresponding author : Ekram Wassim
Tropical Health Department, School of Medicine, High Institute of Public Health - Alexandria university, 165 El Horreya Avenue, 21561 Alexandria – Egypt,
Tel: +2(3)4285575
Received: October 27, 2015 Accepted: December 14, 2015 Published: December 21, 2015
Citation: El-Wahab EWA, Eassa SM, Lotfi SE, Kotkat AM, Shatat HZ, et al. (2015) Seroprevalence, Immunostatus and Factors Associated with Blood Borne Viral Infections Among Egyptian Municipal Solid Waste Workers. J Virol Antivir Res 4:4. doi:10.4172/2324-8955.1000144




Waste collectors have a potential risk of infectious diseases. The high prevalence of viral hepatitis B and C in Egypt has elevated the concern regarding the potential for disease transmission among municipal solid waste workers (MSWWs) from solid waste stream sources. Such transmission has never been epidemiologically demonstrated. This study aimed to explore the occurrence of HIV, Hepatitis B and C and to describe possible ways of virus transmission among MSWWs in Egypt.


A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 346 MSWWs recruited from the main municipality in Alexandria, Egypt. Study procedure entailed interviews using a predesigned questionnaire and blood testing for the blood borne viral markers. Analytical statistics were used to identify independent factors correlated with HCV and HBV infections.


Overall seroprevalences were: hepatitis B; 36.1%; hepatitis C; 8.4%; and HIV; 0.0%. About 50% of the participants were at risk of HBV infection. Subjects were characterized by a predominance of males with low educational and economic levels. HBV infection was found to be significantly associated with younger age, folk circumcision, and the presence of genital complains suggestive of STDs while HCV infection was primarily associated with past history of parenteral anti-schistosomal therapy, intravenous infusion and direct exposure to solid waste.


The present work provides a strong evidence of increased occupational risk of blood borne viral infections among MSWWs. This mandates the need of compulsory HBV  immunization proph.

Keywords: HBV;HCV; HIV; Seroprevalence; Solid waste; Risk factors

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