Short Communication, Int J Ophthalmic Vol: 9 Issue: 3
Short Note on Cataract
Department of Microbiology, Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam, India
Received: April 24, 2020 Accepted: July 20, 2020 Published: July 27, 2020
Cataract is a cloudy area which forms in the lens of the eyes. Cataract usually begins when protein in the eye forms clumps and prevents the lens from sending clear images to retina. Retina usually works by converting the light that comes from lens into signals. It sends the signals to optic nerve and sends to brain and slowly interfere with vision and develops Cataract. Slowly in both eyes. But it will not affect both eyes at a time. Generally, Cataract are most common in older people. a medical condition in which the lens of the eye are not able to see, resulting in blurred vision. "she had cataracts in both eyes". Most cataracts develop in older people or injury changes the tissue that makes up your eye's lens. Some inherited genetic disorders cause other health problems which can increase the risk of cataracts. Cataracts can also be caused by other eye conditions, past eye surgery or medical conditions such as diabetes. Cataract leads to blindness when untreated.
Keywords: Nuclear cataract; Cortical cataracts; Congenital cataracts
There are many causes of cataract These includes :Trauma, Ultraviolet radiation, radiation therapy, smoking diabetes, long term use of medications and steroids, an over production of oxidants, which are oxygen molecules that have been chemically altered due to normal daily life.
There are different types of cataract they are classified bases on where and how they develop in the eyes.
• Nuclear cataract
• Cortical cataracts
• Posterior capsules cataracts
• Congenital cataracts
• Secondary cataracts
• Traumatic cataracts
• Radiation cataracts
Nuclear cataract develops in the middle of the of the lens and nucleus becomes brown or yellow
Cortical cataracts forms around the edge of the nucleus and are wedge shaped.
Posterior capsules cataracts form faster than others and affect the lens.
Congenital cataracts are rare this generally occurs in kids by birth or form during less than one year of a baby.
Secondary cataracts are usually caused by diseases or medications. Disease which cause during the development of cataract are diabetes and glaucoma. The use 9f more steroids lead to cataract.
Traumatic cataracts develops after an injury to eyes. This takes mays years to develop cataract.
Radiation cataracts develop when a person undergoes radiation therapy for cancer.
Symptoms of Cataract includes: blurry vision, troubles seeing at low light, double vision, seeing colours as faded increased sensitivity to glare, need for frequent changes in the prescription glasses, inability to see in dim light, seeing halos around lights, or vision loss
Risk factors of Cataract: Obesity, family genes of cataract, Exposure to UV and sun, previous eye injuries, high blood pressure, consumption of alcohol, exposure to radiation from. x-rays and cancer treatment.
Treatment mainly includes surgery when a cataract interferes with someone's usual activities, the cloudy lens can be replaced with a clear, artificial lens. This is generally a safe, outpatient procedure mostly surgery is recommended.
Diagnosis: Eye checkup is done to check the cataract and vision the most common to Omer test is painless.