Journal of Clinical Images and Case Reports

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Opinion Article, J Clin Image Case Rep Vol: 7 Issue: 2

The Multifaceted Perspective on Breast Tumors: Clinical Breast Examination (CBE)

Marioe Igorie*

Institute of Pathology, University of Bern, CH-3008, Bern, Switzerland

*Corresponding Author:Marioe Igorie
Institute of Pathology, University of Bern
CH-3008 Bern, Switzerland

Received date: 27 March, 2023, Manuscript No. CICR-23-98779;
Editor assigned date: 29 March, 2023, PreQC No. CICR-23-98779(PQ);
Reviewed date: 7 April, 2023, QCNo CICR-23-98779;
Revised date: 17 April, 2023, Manuscript No. CICR-23-98779(R);
Published date: 28 April, 2023, DOI: 10.4172/CICR.1000238.

Citation: Igorie M (2023) The Multifaceted Perspective on Breast Tumors: Clinical Breast Examination (CBE). J Clin Image Case Rep 7:2.


Breast tumors represent a complex and challenging medical condition that affects individuals across the globe. These tumors can arise in both women and men, albeit the incidence is significantly higher in women. A breast tumor, also known as a breast neoplasm, is a mass of abnormal cells that may be benign or malignant. In this perspective note, we will explore the multifaceted aspects of breast tumors, including their causes, detection methods, treatment options, and the emotional impact on patients and their families.

Understanding breast tumors

Benign vs. malignant: Breast tumors can be classified as either benign or malignant. Benign tumors are non-cancerous and tend to grow slowly, remaining localized and not invading surrounding tissues. In contrast, malignant tumors are cancerous and can grow rapidly, invade nearby tissues, and potentially spread to distant organs.

Types and variations: Breast tumors encompass a wide spectrum of subtypes and variations. Some common types include Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS), Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC), Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC), and Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC). Each subtype has its distinct characteristics and requires tailored approaches for diagnosis and treatment.

Causes and risk factors

Genetic factors: Certain genetic mutations, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, significantly increase the risk of developing breast tumors. However, these mutations account for only a small percentage of cases, suggesting that other factors play a substantial role.

Hormonal influences: Hormonal imbalances, particularly elevated estrogen levels, have been associated with an increased risk of breast tumors. Factors such as early onset of menstruation, late menopause, and long-term use of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) can contribute to hormonal imbalances.

Environmental and lifestyle factors: Environmental and lifestyle factors, such as exposure to radiation, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, and lack of physical activity, have been implicated in the development of breast tumors. However, the exact mechanisms and interactions of these factors remain subjects of ongoing research.

Detection and Diagnosis

Breast Self-Examination (BSE): Breast self-examination is a simple technique that individuals can perform on themselves to detect any changes in their breast tissue. Although BSE is not a definitive diagnostic tool, it encourages individuals to be proactive in their breast health and seek medical attention if abnormalities are detected.

Clinical Breast Examination (CBE): Clinical breast examination is performed by healthcare professionals and involves a thorough physical examination of the breasts and surrounding areas. CBE can help identify any suspicious lumps or abnormalities, prompting further investigation.

Mammography and imaging: Mammography is the most commonly used screening tool for breast tumors. It utilizes low-dose X-rays to capture images of the breast tissue and identify any potential abnormalities. Other imaging techniques, such as ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), may also be used in conjunction with mammography for more accurate diagnosis.

Biopsy and pathological analysis: If abnormalities are detected through imaging or physical examination, a biopsy is performed to obtain a tissue sample for further analysis. Pathological examination of the biopsy sample helps determine the type of tumor, its characteristics, and whether it is benign or malignant.

Treatment options

Surgery: Surgical interventions, such as lumpectomy (removal of the tumor and surrounding tissue) or mastectomy (removal of the entire breast), are commonly employed for the treatment of breast tumors. The choice of surgery depends on various factors, including tumor size, location, and stage.

Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy involves the use of highenergy radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink


It is important to keep in mind that autophagy can modify tumor immune responses as well. Altogether, identifying and validating biomarkers for active autophagy and the use of specific autophagy modulating drugs might enable researchers and medical oncologists to predict the effects of early vs late autophagy modulation for personalized breast cancer care.

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