Short Communication, J Virol Antivir Res Vol: 10 Issue: 1
Virotherapy: Brief Overview
Department of Microbiology Biochemistry, Andhra University, Vishakapatnam, India,
Department of Microbiology Biochemistry, Andhra University, Vishakapatnam, India
Received: December 30, 2020 Accepted: January 13, 2021 Published: March 20, 2021
Citation: Sabbineni A (2021) Virotherapy: Brief Overview. J Virol Antivir Res 10: 204.
New cancer therapies with novel mechanisms and functions are needed. Virotherapy is an outstanding example of such treatment. The ability to induce tumour destruction through a variety of pathways, as well as the possible lack of cross resistance with conventional therapies, is the benefits of virotherapy. The oncolytic virus not only has special mechanisms of action that aren't present in any other virus.
Keywords: Oncolytic Virotherapy; Viral Gene Therapy; Viral Immune Therapy
Virotherapy is a biotechnology-based procedure that turnsviruses into therapeutic agents by reprogramming them to curediseases. Anti-cancer oncolytic viruses, viral vectors for genetherapy, and viral immunotherapy are the three primary divisions ofvirotherapy. Gene overexpression, gene knockout, and suicide genedelivery are three distinct types of treatment approaches used bythese branches.
Oncolytic virotherapy explains the rejections of malignant cellsby viral propagations inside the tumour. These results differences indiseases from virus to virus, most of the viruses have trophism formalignant cells which makes them accept for oncolysis. Oncolyticviruses are oncolytic vaccines viruses, oncolytic HSV, andoncolytic measlevirus.
Mechanisms of Oncolysis in Virotherapy
Oncolytic viruses must be capable of replicating and infectingtumor cells selectively. Oncolytic viruses kill cancer cells through avariety of mechanisms, either directly or through immunemechanisms that destroy infected tumors cells. After exhausting allcell resources, a virus can use cell-destructive mechanisms such asautophagy, apoptosis, or necrosis during oncolysis.
Viral Gene Therapy
Viral gene therapy transmits to deliver the therapeutic genes tocells with genetic malfunctions.
To transmit the genes it should be starts with the engineering ofthe viral vector, through this mechanisms the viral vector may differfrom one another. In these diseases the genetic mutation may causedeficiency of genes due to over expression of genes, viral genetherapy is introduced to eliminate these genes. This therapy eithercarries on in vivo or ex vivo. This vector is transferred directly to thetissue or organ of the patient, first tissue is recovered and transferredback to patient. The delivery of genes creates long lasting cells thatcontinuously produce gene products.
It has successful clinical trials of viral gene therapy speciallywith adeno associated virus vector and t-cell therapy.
The design of gene therapy is simple that delivers the geneticmaterial to cells that may slow down the diseases or repaired thedamaged tissues. These gene therapies introduce the genes intonormal or malignant cells to get therapeutic benefits.
Viral Immune Therapy
Viral immune therapy is the use of virus to restore the bodyimmune system. Comparison of vaccines in which killed bacteria orvirus cause immune response. Viral immunotherapy uses engineeredvirus to present antigens to the immune system, these antigens mayform virus, bacteria or other diseases like cancer antigens. Vaccinesare also another method to develop immunity to body. Theinactivated viruses kills the viruses in the form of antigens to thehost, the host also develops the immunity to the virus.
In the case of cancer, viral immunotherapy activates the immunesystem to fight cancer cells more effectively. Rather than avoidingcancer's causes, as one would assume in the sense of vaccination,cancer vaccines are used to cure cancer. (#43) The process isdetermined by the virus as well as the treatment. As described in theprevious section, oncolytic viruses are stimulated.