Journal of Virology & Antiviral ResearchISSN: 2324-8955

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Editorial,  J Virol Antivir Res Vol: 4 Issue: 1

Viral Threats in Aquaculture: The Battle Continues

J M Grijalva-Chon* and R Castro Longoria
Department of Scientific and Technological Research, University of Sonora, Mexico
Corresponding author : J.M. Grijalva-Chon
Department of Scientific and Technological Research, University of Sonora, Mexico
Tel: 662-259-2169
Email: [email protected]
Received: March 23, 2015 Accepted: March 24, 2015 Published: March 27, 2015
Citation: Grijalva-Chon JM, Longoria CR (2015) Viral Threats in Aquaculture: The Battle Continues. J Virol Antivir Res 4:e107. doi:10.4172/2324-8955.1000e107

Abstract

The growth of world population demands more food and in this sense aquaculture has contributed, in recent years, to provide protein of quality to supplement the insufficient contribution of fisheries. Globally, the rate of increase in aquaculture production contrasts with the stagnation of fisheries production. For example, in 2012 fish production reached 158 million tons, of which aquaculture production accounted for 42%. In the same year, global aquaculture (fish, mollusks, crustaceans and others) produced 67 million tons generated mainly (63%) in inland facilities  . But just as crop and livestock production, aquaculture faces challenges with varying degrees of difficulty, such as financing alternatives for poor farmers, adapting new technologies developed in different regions, lack of qualified training, and pathogens that threaten the health of animals raised in aquaculture.

Keywords: Aqua culture , Viral pathogens

Editorial

The growth of world population demands more food and in this sense aquaculture has contributed, in recent years, to provide protein of quality to supplement the insufficient contribution of fisheries. Globally, the rate of increase in aquaculture production contrasts with the stagnation of fisheries production. For example, in 2012 fish production reached 158 million tons, of which aquaculture production accounted for 42%. In the same year, global aquaculture (fish, mollusks, crustaceans and others) produced 67 million tons generated mainly (63%) in inland facilities [1]. But just as crop and livestock production, aquaculture faces challenges with varying degrees of difficulty, such as financing alternatives for poor farmers, adapting new technologies developed in different regions, lack of qualified training, and pathogens that threaten the health of animals raised in aquaculture.
The globalizations of markets open up the necessary channels to distribute aquaculture production and enterprising farmers profit from it. However, the first steps of globalization of the aquaculture markets were made with little or no regulation that would maintain the natural boundaries of pathogens and avoid the spread of diseases affecting species of interest for aquaculture. The game of Russian roulette had begun and epizooties began to reduce crop production since the 90s affecting different geographic areas in different times, situation which has continued to this day.
The World Organization for Animal Health has created a list of 21 viruses that are of international concern and severely affect the health of a large number of aquatic species [2]. Ten viruses are of special concern to fish health, eight for crustaceans, two for mollusks and one for amphibians. In the last two decades there are reports of mass mortality events in major aquaculture species. For example, Ostreid herpesvirus type 1 has been responsible for mass mortality events in cultured spat and juvenile oyster in California [3,4] and Europe [5]. Also in Asia, and around the same time, the presence of the yellow head virus was reported with attacks of great severity in shrimp farms [6,7]. This virus was confirmed in the American Continent in 2006 [8] but without causing outbreaks due to a possible resistance in shrimp acquired by previous contact with the Taura syndrome virus [9].
Despite the severe regulations designed to prevent transboundary movements of pathogens, it has not been possible to avoid severe epidemics that have decimated the cultures around the world, suggesting that pathogens have been established in wild populations and reached the cultured species by vectors [10]. Therefore, a consequence of the establishment in new geographic areas may be new non-deleterious genome rearrangements, resulting new strains [11-13] with unknown consequences in most cases. As a result, there are many research routes in the field of aquatic virology, for example: a) What kind of genomic rearrangements have occurred in pathogens established in new geographic areas?, b) What is the consequence of these arrangements on the infective power?, c) These arrangements are related to the coupling of new hosts?, d) What is the feasibility of successful use of iRNA to control infective process?, e) what is the exact combination of environmental factors, health host, and viral strain that trigger the viral lytic phase?, f) What are the implications of co-infections?, g) Can metagenomics contribute to find an effective control strategy? These and many other questions require great effort and different study strategies given the great diversity of geographic conditions, cultured species and viruses of interest.

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